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  1. B lymphocyte activating factor (BAFF) is a growth factor regulating B lymphocytes survival and maturation. Serum BAFF levels were elevated in patients affected with autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), includin...

    Authors: Xin Wang, Jinhui Huang, Aixia Zhang, Chen Fang, Qi Ma and Pengjun Jiang
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:88
  2. Reliable quantification of the relationship between hypertension and diabetes risk is limited, especially among Chinese people. We aimed to investigate the association between hypertension and the risk of diab...

    Authors: Yang Wu, Haofei Hu, Jinlin Cai, Runtian Chen, Xin Zuo, Heng Cheng and Dewen Yan
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:87
  3. Diabetes mellitus type two is one of the major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatment of diabetes can reduce this risk, but the treatment options differ a lot in their risk-reducing capabilities. We compared t...

    Authors: Pavle Vrebalov Cindro, Mladen Krnić, Darko Modun, Božo Smajić and Jonatan Vuković
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:86
  4. Whether the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is a single, stable or a transitional, fluctuating state is currently unknown. The Mexican-Mestizo population has a genetic predisposition for the develo...

    Authors: Daniel Elías-López, Arsenio Vargas-Vázquez, Roopa Mehta, Ivette Cruz Bautista, Fabiola Del Razo Olvera, Donaji Gómez-Velasco, Paloma Almeda Valdes and Carlos A. Aguilar-Salinas
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:85
  5. Subclinical Cushing’s disease (SCD) is defined by corticotroph adenoma-induced mild hypercortisolism without typical physical features of Cushing’s disease. Infection is an important complication associated wi...

    Authors: Yuki Yamauchi, Hiraku Kameda, Kazuno Omori, Michio Tani, Kyu Yong Cho, Akinobu Nakamura, Hideaki Miyoshi, Shinya Tanaka and Tatsuya Atsumi
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:84
  6. Little is known about whether the influence of glycemic variability on arrhythmia is related to age in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, we aimed to compare the association between glycemic variabili...

    Authors: Jianbo Zhang, Jianmin Yang, Liwei Liu, Liyan Li, Jiangyin Cui, Shuo Wu and Kuanxiao Tang
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:83
  7. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has obvious clinical value in the diagnosis of diabetes, but the conclusions on the diagnostic value of diabetic retinopathy (DR) are not consistent. This study aims to comprehe...

    Authors: Bo Zhang, Bingjie Zhang, Zhulin Zhou, Yutong Guo and Dan Wang
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:82
  8. Hyperprolactinaemia might cause adverse metabolic effects. The aim of our study was to compare parameters of body composition, glucose and lipid metabolism between untreated patients with prolactinoma and cont...

    Authors: Anna Sophia Posawetz, Christian Trummer, Marlene Pandis, Felix Aberer, Thomas R. Pieber, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Stefan Pilz and Verena Theiler-Schwetz
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:81
  9. Obesity associated type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder ; however, the etiology of obesity associated type 2 diabetes mellitus remains largely unknown. There is an urgent need to further broaden th...

    Authors: G. Prashanth, Basavaraj Vastrad, Anandkumar Tengli, Chanabasayya Vastrad and Iranna Kotturshetti
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:80
  10. The study objective was to evaluate the effects of professional continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) as an adjuvant educational tool for improving glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

    Authors: Dulce Adelaida Rivera-Ávila, Alejandro Iván Esquivel-Lu, Carlos Rafael Salazar-Lozano, Kyla Jones and Svetlana V. Doubova
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:79
  11. Diabetes insipidus (DI) can be a common cause of polydipsia and polyuria. Here, we present a case of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) accompanied with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) secondary...

    Authors: Wei Zhang, Yimin Shen, Yuezhong Ren, Yvbo Xin and Lijun Wang
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:78
  12. Understanding the causes and risk factors of metabolic syndrome is important for promoting population health. Oxidative stress has been associated with metabolic syndrome, and also obstructive sleep apnea. The...

    Authors: Behnam Kargar, Zahra Zamanian, Majid Bagheri Hosseinabadi, Vahid Gharibi, Mohammad Sanyar Moradi and Rosanna Cousins
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:77
  13. Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness. Mutations in Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene may cause dysregulated ...

    Authors: Yingying Gong, Li Xiong, Xiujun Li, Lei Su and Haipeng Xiao
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:76
  14. The gold standard for the diagnosis of central precocious puberty (CPP) is gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or GnRH analogs (GnRHa) stimulation test. But the stimulation test is time-consuming and costly....

    Authors: Jingyu You, Xianying Cheng, Xiaojing Li, Mingqing Li, Li Yao, Feihong Luo, Ruoqian Cheng, Li Xi and Jiangfeng Ye
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:75
  15. Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) represents one of the leading causes for hospital admissions and outpatient visits. Hence, T2D continuously imposes a significant burden to healthcare systems. The aim of this study was t...

    Authors: Lemma Demissie Regassa and Assefa Tola
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:74
  16. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a common and complex disease. Dysfunction of pancreatic β cells, which cannot release sufficient insulin, plays a central role in T2D. Genetics plays a critical role in T2D et...

    Authors: Liangcai Ding, Mengdi Cai, Lu Chen, Han Yan, Shicheng Lu, Shuchao Pang and Bo Yan
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:73
  17. Diabetic foot self-care refers to a group of self-management behaviors that can reduce the incidence of foot ulcers and amputations. It is necessary to have a valid and reliable standard tool to measure foot s...

    Authors: Hassan Mahmoodi, Kamel Abdi, Emmanuel Navarro-Flores, Zaniar Karimi, Hamid Sharif Nia and Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:72
  18. Acrodysostosis is a rare hereditary disorder described as a primary bone dysplasia with or without hormonal resistance. Pathogenic variants in the PRKAR1A and PDE4D genes are known genetic causes of this conditio...

    Authors: Gunda Petraitytė, Kamilė Šiaurytė, Violeta Mikštienė, Loreta Cimbalistienė, Dovilė Kriaučiūnienė, Aušra Matulevičienė, Algirdas Utkus and Eglė Preikšaitienė
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:71
  19. Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 are the most important cytokine with pro and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. Dysregulation of IL-6 and IL-10 are associated with increased risk of developing Type 2 Dia...

    Authors: Birhanu Ayelign, Markos Negash, Henok Andualem, Tadelo Wondemagegn, Eyuel Kassa, Tewodros Shibabaw, Yonas Akalu and Meseret Derbew Molla
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:70
  20. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer and the incidence of PTC has continued to increase over the past decades. Many studies have shown that obesity is an independent risk fa...

    Authors: Maoguang Ma, Mingdian Wang, Zhanqiang Zhang, Bo Lin, Zicheng Sun, Haoyan Guan, Weiming Lv and Jie Li
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:69
  21. Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare thyroid malignancy, there are few large sample studies on PTL and no standardized treatment regimen has been established due to the rarity. The aims of this study were ...

    Authors: Nan Xiang, Fangyuan Dong, Xuebing Zhan, Shuhan Wang, Junjie Wang, Entao Sun and Bing Chen
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:68
  22. Gestational diabetes is the most common medical complication in pregnancy, and it has many side effects for the mother and the fetus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oat bran consumption on...

    Authors: Zahra Barati, Mina Iravani, Majid Karandish, Mohammad Hosein Haghighizadeh and Sara Masihi
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:67
  23. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) produce lipid mediators with both anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution properties, including resolvins. The purpose of this study was to detect serum resolvin E1 (RV...

    Authors: Jing Song, Rongxin Sun, Yuanyuan Zhang, Jing Ke and Dong Zhao
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:66
  24. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for low bone density, as this might be important and necessary for doctors specialized in treating patients with low bone ...

    Authors: Jingying Qiu, Chengjiang Li, Zhichun Dong and Jing Wang
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:65
  25. The main purpose is to investigate the effect of LiCO3 as an add-on therapy with radioactive iodine in increasing the cure and decreasing the T4 level compared to radioactive iodine alone. The primary outcome ...

    Authors: Mohamed Abd-ElGawad, Mohamed Abdelmonem, Ahmed Eissa Ahmed, Omar Magdy Mohammed, Mohamed Sayed Zaazouee, Ahmed Assar, Mohamed Gadelkarim and Ahmed M. Afifi
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:64
  26. Many young adults with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) receive long-term glucocorticoids (GC). GC can cause hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and adolescents may therefore be candidates for pubertal induction. ...

    Authors: Yolanda Alins Sahun, Tim Cheetham, Christopher Boot, Volker Straub and Claire L. Wood
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:63
  27. Obesity prevalence is increasing globally. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for severe and complex obesity resulting in significant and sustained weight loss. In Sweden, most bariatric surgery patie...

    Authors: Ensieh Memarian, Daniel Carrasco, Hans Thulesius and Susanna Calling
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:62
  28. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a serious threat to childhood life and has fairly complicated pathogenesis. Profound attempts have been made to enlighten the pathogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms of T1D are stil...

    Authors: G. Prashanth, Basavaraj Vastrad, Anandkumar Tengli, Chanabasayya Vastrad and Iranna Kotturshetti
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:61
  29. Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy, rarer when synchronous with a non medullary well differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Parathyroid carcinoma accounts of 0.005% of all malignant tumors and it ...

    Authors: Nadia De Falco, Giuseppe Santangelo, Fabrizio Chirico, Angelo Cangiano, Maria Giulia Sommella, Angelo Cosenza, Andrea Ronchi, Marina Accardo, Gianluca Pellino, Domenico Parmeggiani, Silvestro Canonico and Massimo De Falco
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:60
  30. Apolipoprotein (Apo) may be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), however, little is known whether or not serum apolipoproteins are correlated with fasting blood glucose (FBG) and the prevalence of T2D in Chi...

    Authors: Liang Gao, Yaju Zhang, Xingmin Wang and Hongli Dong
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:59
  31. The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) occurring in skin tissues can be measured as skin autofluorescence (SAF). Here, we assessed the correlation between SAF values and the complexity and ...

    Authors: Xian Wang, Xingwang Zhao, Tingting Lian, Juanjin Wei, Wanxu Yue, Senwei Zhang and Qiu Chen
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:58
  32. Diabetes is associated with poor coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. However, little is known on the impact of undiagnosed diabetes in the COVID-19 population. We investigated whether diabetes, parti...

    Authors: Ye Liu, Ran Lu, Junhong Wang, Qin Cheng, Ruitao Zhang, Shuisheng Zhang, Yunyi Le, Haining Wang, Wenhua Xiao, Hongwei Gao, Lin Zeng and Tianpei Hong
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:56
  33. Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and its complications. Significant weight loss has been shown to improve glycaemia in people with T2DM and obesity. National and int...

    Authors: Arunav Thakur, Dharmesh Sharma, Bhavya Gupta, Nikitha Kramadhari, Rohit Rajagopal, David Simmons and Milan Kumar Piya
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:55
  34. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. Adoption of sedentary life style and westernized diet are shown to be associated with development of NAFLD. Since p...

    Authors: Hadi Emamat, Hamid Ghalandari, Ali Saneei Totmaj, Hadith Tangestani and Azita Hekmatdoost
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:51
  35. Pituitary adenomas are benign brain tumors that cause considerable morbidity and neurological symptoms. SOX9 as a regulatory transcriptional mediator affects normal and tumor cell growth with an undefined role...

    Authors: Farzad Izak Shirian, Mohammad Ghorbani, Mohammad E. Khamseh, Mehrnaz Imani, Mahshid Panahi, Alimohammad Alimohammadi, Mitra Nourbakhsh, Vahid Salimi and Masoumeh Tavakoli-Yaraki
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:50
  36. As the incidence of secretory osteoporosis has increased, bone loss, osteoporosis and their relationships with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) have received increased attention. In this study, the role of TS...

    Authors: Tuo Deng, Wenwen Zhang, Yanling Zhang, Mengqi Zhang, Zhikun Huan, Chunxiao Yu, Xiujuan Zhang, Yan Wang and Jin Xu
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:49
  37. Type 2 diabetes is more frequent in Latin American people than in non-Hispanic whites due to a combination of genetic and lifestyle risk factors. Brazil and Mexico are the most populous countries in Latin Amer...

    Authors: Renata Breda Martins, Sandra Azucena Ordaz-Briseño, Sarahí Flores-Hernández, Ângelo José Gonçalves Bós, Raúl C. Baptista-Rosas and Arieh Roldán Mercado-Sesma
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:48
  38. NKX6.1 is a transcription factor for insulin, as well as a marker for β cell maturity. Abnormal NKX6.1 expression in β cells, such as translocation from the nucleus to cytoplasm or lost expression, has been sh...

    Authors: Tengli Liu, Peng Sun, Jiaqi Zou, Le Wang, Guanqiao Wang, Na Liu, Yaojuan Liu, Xuejie Ding, Boya Zhang, Rui Liang, Shusen Wang and Zhongyang Shen
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:47
  39. Home care services plays an important role in diabetes management, and to enable older adults remain home-dwellers. Adequate follow-up and systematic nursing documentation are necessary elements in high qualit...

    Authors: Lovise S. Heimro, Monica Hermann, Therese Thuen Davies, Anne Haugstvedt, Johannes Haltbakk and Marit Graue
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:46
  40. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy among young women. Insulin resistance is a key feature in the pathogenesis of PCOS; also high molecular weight adiponectin is a marker of in...

    Authors: Farnaz Kamali Haghighi Shirazi, Zohre Khodamoradi and Marjan Jeddi
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:45
  41. The human ovary is the target of autoimmune attack in cases of autoimmune disorders, which can cause ovarian dysfunction. Due to the higher prevalence of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis (HT) in Polycystic Ovary Syndro...

    Authors: Aliye Nigar Serin, Özer Birge, Aysel Uysal, Süheyla Görar and Feyza Tekeli
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:44
  42. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is reportedly associated with an increased risk of adverse events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The prognostic significance of SCH in the eld...

    Authors: Yong-Sheng Liu, Mei Wei, Le Wang, Gang Liu, Guo-Ping Ma, Katsushige Ono, Ze-Long Cao, Man Yang and Ming-Qi Zheng
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:43
  43. Type 2 diabetes in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, including Oman, is currently the fastest growing health crisis and is a significant cause of premature mortality and disability. There is currently in...

    Authors: Adhra Al-Mawali, Ayaman Al-Harrasi, Sathish Kumar Jayapal, Magdi Morsi, Avinash Daniel Pinto, Waleed Al-Shekaili, Hilal Al-Kharusi, Zainab Al-Balushi and John Idikula
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:42
  44. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) causes many problems for mother and her neonate. A healthy diet plays an important role in preventing GDM. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between major die...

    Authors: Abazar Roustazadeh, Hamed Mir, Sima Jafarirad, Farideh Mogharab, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Amir Abdoli and Saiedeh Erfanian
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:41
  45. Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is prevalent in the general population and has been reported to be an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the association of Mets with th...

    Authors: Xiaohui Wang, Long Ji, Zhaoyang Tang, Guoyong Ding, Xueyu Chen, Jian Lv, Yanru Chen and Dong Li
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:40
  46. The incidence of thyroid nodules is increasing year by year around the world. However, ultrasound is not recommended as a screening test for the general population or patients with a normal thyroid on palpatio...

    Authors: Zhi Chen, Singla Sethiel Mosha, Tong Zhang, Ming Xu, Yanli Li, Zhuoqing Hu, Weiqiang Liang, Xiaoyi Deng, Tingting Ou, Ling Li and Wangen Li
    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2021 21:38

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