Skip to main content

Effects of dietary palmitoleic acid on vascular function in aorta of diabetic mice

Abstract

Background

Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes causes atherosclerosis and progresses to diabetic macroangiopathy, and can lead to coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease. Palmitoleic acid (POA) is a product of endogenous lipogenesis and is present in fish and vegetable oil. In human and animal studies, POA is reported as a beneficial fatty acid related to insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, few studies have reported its effects on aortic function in diabetes. Here, we investigated the effects of POA administration on vascular function in KKAy mice, a model of type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Male C57BL/6 J (control) and KKAy (experimental) mice at the age of 14 weeks were used in the present study. For each mouse strain, one group was fed with reference diet and a second group was fed POA-containing diet for 2 weeks. The vascular reactivities of prepared aortic rings were then measured in an organ bath to determine if POA administration changed vascular function in these mice.

Results

KKAy mice treated with POA exhibited decreased plasma glucose levels compared with mice treated with reference diet. However, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine and protease-activated receptor 2 activating protein, which are attenuated in the aorta of KKAy mice compared to C57BL/6 J mice under a reference diet, were not affected by a 2-week POA treatment. In addition, assessment of vasoconstriction revealed that the phenylephrine-induced vasoconstrictive response was enhanced in KKAy mice compared to C57BL/6 J mice under a reference diet, but no effect was observed in KKAy mice fed a POA-containing diet. In contrast, there was an increase in vasoconstriction in C57BL/6 J mice fed the POA-containing diet compared to mice fed a reference diet. Furthermore, the vasoconstriction in aorta in both C57BL/6 J and KKAy mice fed a POA-containing diet were further enhanced under hyperglycemic conditions compared to normal glucose conditions in vitro. In the hyperinsulinemic, and hyperinsulinemic combined with hyperglycemic conditions, vasoconstriction was increased in KKAy mice fed with POA.

Conclusion

These results suggest that POA intake enhances vasoconstriction under hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions, which are characteristics of type 2 diabetes, and may contribute to increased vascular complications in diabetes.

Peer Review reports

Background

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that is characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose due to insulin deficiency or (and) insulin resistance. Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients causes vascular abnormalities and progresses to diabetic macroangiopathy, including coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease [1]. The vascular abnormalities of diabetes mellitus are characterized by endothelial dysfunction and enhanced vasocontractility [2]. Moreover, cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes represent an issue in clinical practice because they result in vascular occlusion and restenosis after surgical intervention [3]. Although the common therapy for diabetes is performed on the basis of mean glycemic control using HbA1c levels, the prevention of the onset of macroangiopathy or neuropathy is very important for maintaining patient health [4, 5]. Indeed, moderate hyperglycemia has been shown to play a decisive role in in-stent restenosis even in non-diabetic patients, demonstrating the importance of glycemic control [6]. Diet remedies, such as dietary restrictions, are important for glycemic control, but it is also necessary to monitor potential dietary composition. In particular, most studies have suggested that high fat intake may increase the risk of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease [7, 8]. However, it has been reported that the type of fats consumed, rather than the total amount of fat intake, may have a greater effect on the components of the metabolic syndrome [9, 10].

It has been reported that polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are often present in fish and shellfish, have a favorable effect on many lifestyle-related diseases including diabetes [11]. We have also reported the beneficial effects of fish oil or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) in in vitro and in vivo studies using type 2 diabetes model animals [12,13,14]. ω-3 PUFA reduces the risk of cardiovascular disorders by lowering LDL cholesterol levels in serum and has a direct action on aortic endothelial cells [14, 15]. Many large-scale epidemiological studies have examined the health benefits of fish oil or ω-3 PUFA intake for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases [16, 17]. However, other clinical studies reported that treatment with ω-3 PUFA has no effect on cytokines and platelet function associated with atherosclerotic disease in patients with type 2 diabetes [18].

In recent years, the monounsaturated fatty acid palmitoleic acid (POA) has also been recognized as an adipocyte-derived lipid hormone (or lipokine) that allows adipose tissue to regulate systemic metabolism, supporting its physiological relevance [17, 19,20,21,22,23]. Circulating POA has three main sources: intake as a natural food, endogenous lipogenesis (cis isomer) and dietary whole-fat dairy products (trans isomer). Both POA isomers have been reported to be associated with lower metabolic risk [19,20,21,22,23]. POA in fish oil and vegetable oil is also expected to increase insulin sensitivity [19, 20]. We have reported that POA decreased total cholesterol levels in serum and total lipid levels in the liver of high fat diet-fed mice [24]. Although, many studies have reported biological functions for POA, the health benefits of POA intake have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effects of POA intake on diabetes-induced vascular abnormalities using thoracic aortas removed from KKAy mice, a model of type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Reagents

Acetylcholine chloride (ACh), phenylephrine hydrochloride (Phe), and Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Lys-Val-amide (protease-activated receptor 2-activating protein; PAR2-AP) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St Louis, MO, USA). Sodium nitroprusside dehydrate (SNP) was purchased from FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical (Osaka, Japan). cis-9-Hexadecenoic Acid (palmitoleic acid; POA) was purchased from Tokyo Chemistry Industry (Tokyo, Japan). All reagents were dissolved in saline and concentrations are expressed as the final molar concentration in the ex vivo organ bath experiments.

Experimental design

Male KKAy mice, which spontaneously develop obesity and type 2 diabetes [25], and control C57BL/6 J mice were obtained from Tokyo Laboratory Animals Science (Tokyo, Japan) at 6 weeks of age and fed a standard pellet diet (CE2; CLEA, Tokyo, Japan) for 8 weeks. Mice were exposed to a 12-h light–dark cycle and maintained at a constant temperature of 22 ± 2 °C and humidity of 55 ± 10%. KKAy and C57BL/6 J mice were then divided into 2 groups, respectively. For each mouse strain, one group was fed with reference diet and the second group was fed with diet containing POA for 2 weeks. Each group was described as follows: control mice, C57BL/6 J; control POA-treated mice, C57BL/6 J-POA; experimental mice, KKAy; experimental POA-treated mice: KKAy-POA. The composition of the diet was prepared based on the AIN93G diet [26]. During the experiment, the composition of POA diet was prepared according to daily weight fluctuations and food consumption in each mouse. The general diet compositions are shown in Table 1. Mice were euthanized by decapitation under isoflurane anesthesia, and blood samples were collected in tubes using heparinized funnels. The animal experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Josai University.

Table 1 Composition of the experimental diets

Collection of plasma and measurement of plasma parameters

The blood samples were centrifuged (200×g for 20 min at 4 °C), and the supernatant plasma stored at − 20 °C until being assayed. Plasma levels of glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were each determined using commercially available enzyme kits (FUJIFILM Wako Pure Chemical). Plasma insulin was measured by enzyme immunoassay (Shibayagi, Gunma, Japan).

Measurement of isometric force

Aortic vascular function was measured as previously described [27,28,29]. Briefly, the thoracic aorta was quickly isolated and immersed in oxygenated, modified ice-cold bicarbonate-buffered physiologic salt solution (PSS; containing 137 mM NaCl, 4.73 mM KCl, 1.2 mM MgSO4, 0.025 mM EDTA, 1.2 mM KH2PO4, 2.5 mM CaCl2, and 11.1 mM glucose). Next, the artery was separated from the surrounding connective tissue and cut into rings of 2-3 mm length under a stereoscopic microscope and suspended in a well-oxygenated (95% O2, 5% CO2) bath containing 10 mL of PSS at 37 °C. For the vasorelaxation studies, the rings were constricted with an equieffective concentration of prostaglandin F (PGF) (1 × 10− 6 − 3 × 10− 6 mol/L). When the PGF-induced contraction had reached a plateau level, ACh (10− 9 − 10− 5 mol/L), SNP (10− 10 − 10− 5 mol/L) or PAR2-AP (1 × 10− 8 − 3 × 10− 6 mol/L) was added in a cumulative manner. The evaluation of vasodilation was expressed as a percentage of the level observed prior to adding PGF. The tension generated by the aortic rings was amplified and digitized via a transducer (TB-611 T; Nihon Koden, Tokyo, Japan) and recorded and stored using Lab Chart software (ADInstruments, Tokyo, Japan). For the vasoconstriction studies, the aortic rings were contracted by cumulative administration of Phe. After isolating the aorta, as described above, and cut into rings of 1.5–2.0 mm length, the rings were placed in oxygenated PSS. Next, vascular rings were mounted horizontally onto the microvascular force measurement system. In this vasocontraction study, the normal physiological glucose concentration (11.1 mM) was defined as the normal glucose condition. To understand the direct effects of extracellular glucose accumulation, a high glucose condition was established by pretreating the vascular tissues with high glucose-PSS (22.2 mM glucose in PSS) at 37 °C for 30 min, as previously reported by our laboratory [29]. These values were based on reported postprandial glucose levels in C57BL/6 J (~ 11.1 mM) and KKAy mice (~ 22.2 mM) in vivo [30, 31]. The obtained change in vascular tension was shown as the generated tension per 1 mm length of the aortic ring.

Statistical analysis

All results are expressed as mean ± standard error of mean (S.E.M.). Numbers of mice and samples analyzed are indicated in the figure legends and table. Plasma parameters and body weight were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. Differences in responses between groups of aortic rings were determined by comparing the whole concentration-response curves using a two-way repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey multiple comparisons test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The statistical analyses were performed using Prism 8 software (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA).

Results

Body weight and food intake

To determine the composition of the diet to be administered, we measured body weight and food intake after 8 weeks on a standard pellet diet. Body weights and food intakes were 25.1 ± 0.3 g, 3.3 ± 0.05 g/day (C57BL/6 J) and 39.9 ± 0.5 g, 6.2 ± 0.1 g/day (KKAy), respectively. We then measured body weight and food intake while mice were fed the reference or POA-containing diet. There was no difference in the body weight and food intake of the reference diet groups and POA-fed groups in both KKAy and C57BL/6 J mice (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1
figure 1

Body weight (A) and food intake (B) during the experimental period. The horizontal axis represents the number of days since the reference or POA-containing diet was fed to mice. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. A n = 10 for all groups. B n = 3 for C57BL and C57BL-POA, n = 10 for KKAy and KKAy-POA

Plasma parameters

As shown in Fig. 2, POA administration had no effect on non-fasting plasma levels of glucose and insulin in C57BL/6 J mice. Administration of the POA-containing diet to KKAy mice for 2 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in plasma glucose levels (Fig. 2A), while plasma levels of insulin did not change compared to the reference diet group (Fig. 2B). In addition, HDL cholesterol levels in C57BL/6 J-POA showed a significant increase compared to C57BL/6 J (Table 2). There was no difference in the other plasma parameters (triglyceride, total cholesterol and NEFA) due to POA administration in both C57BL/6 J and KKAy mice (Table 2).

Fig. 2
figure 2

Plasma glucose (A) and insulin (B) levels in the four experimental groups. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. of 7-11 mice. *P < 0.05, ***P < 0.001 (one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparison test)

Table 2 Plasma levels of triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA)

Vascular reactivity

After precontraction with PGF (10− 6 − 3 × 10− 6 mol/L), cumulative treatment of ACh (10− 9 − 10− 5 mol/L), PAR2-AP (1 × 10− 8 − 3 × 10− 6 mol/L) or SNP (10− 10 − 10− 5 mol/L) was performed. The ACh- and PAR2-AP-induced relaxation of aortic rings isolated from KKAy mice were significantly weaker than those of C57BL/6 J mice administered the reference diet (Fig. 3A, B). The administration of POA for 2 weeks had no effect on the vasorelaxant response in both the KKAy and C57BL/6 J groups. The relaxation induced by the direct NO donor SNP showed no significant difference between C57BL/6 J and KKAy (Fig. 3C). However, the relaxation induced by SNP in aorta from KKAy mice administered POA-containing diet was attenuated compared with those from C57BL/6 J mice treated with reference and POA diet (Fig. 3C).

Fig. 3
figure 3

Concentration–response curves following ACh (A), PAR2-AP (B) and SNP (C) treatments of aortic rings. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. of 6 or 7 mice. **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.001 (comparison of the whole concentration-response curves using two-way ANOVA with Tukey multiple comparison test)

We then examined vascular contractile responses caused by Phe, which stimulates α1-adrenergic receptors (Figs. 4 and 5). Phe-induced vasocontraction in the aorta from KKAy mice was significantly greater than in C57BL/6 J mice. In the aorta from POA-administered mice, the vasoconstrictive response was enhanced in C57BL/6 J mice, but no change was observed in KKAy mice (Fig. 4). Next, the effect of direct treatment with extracellular glucose or/and insulin concentration on Phe-induced aortic contractile responses was examined (Fig. 5). The high glucose condition (HG) was performed by treating the tissue for 30 min in PSS containing 22.2 mmol/L glucose, which is double the normal glucose levels (NG; 11.1 mmol/L), a condition that models transient postprandial hyperglycemia. In high glucose-PSS-treated aorta isolated from C57BL/6 J mice, only a slight increase in contraction was observed when Phe was added at 3 × 10− 7 mol/L or higher (Fig. 5A). The aortas from the other groups showed high vasocontraction in HG compared with NG (Fig. 5B-D). Comparing Phe-induced vasoconstriction in the aorta from C57BL/6 J and KKAy mice under high glucose conditions, the aorta of POA-fed mice showed increased constriction compared to the aorta of mice fed a reference diet (Fig. 5A-D). Similarly, Phe stimulation was performed in the presence of 10 nmol/L insulin to model a condition that is comparable to postprandial hyperinsulinemia. In the high insulin condition (HI), the vasoconstriction responses of the aorta from C57BL/6 J, −POA and KKAy mice were not affected, but the response of the aorta from KKAy-POA mice showed a significant increase in tension (Fig. 5B-D). The Phe-induced vasoconstrictive response under high glucose and high insulin conditions also showed the same results as in the high insulin conditions (Fig. 5B-D).

Fig. 4
figure 4

Concentration–response curves following Phe treatment of aortic rings. Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. of 4 mice. *P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 (comparison of the whole concentration-response curves using two-way ANOVA with Tukey multiple comparison test)

Fig. 5
figure 5

Concentration–response curves following Phe treatment of aortic rings. Organ baths contained normal glucose (NG: 11.1 mM), high glucose (HG: 22.2 mM) or high insulin (HI: 10 μM). Data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. of 3-4 mice. *P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 (comparison of the whole concentration-response curves using two-way ANOVA with Tukey multiple comparison test)

Discussion

The results of the present study showed that chronic dietary POA supplementation enhances vasoconstrictive responses under high glucose and insulin conditions in aorta from KKAy diabetic mice.

Changes in body weight and food intake were obtained during the 2 weeks of POA administration, as shown in Fig. 1; however, body weights remained largely unchanged during the treatment period for both the C57BL/6 J and KKAy mice. Although the exact amount of POA intake was not precisely controlled in our experiments, we estimated that the mice were fed POA at approximately 300 mg/kg/day based on their body weights, diet components, and food compositions. The dosage was chosen based on reports of improved glucose uptake at this dose [32, 33]. After the C57BL/6 J and KKAy mice were fed the experimental diets for 2 weeks, plasma parameters for all mice were measured. As shown in Fig. 2, insulin levels were not changed by POA treatment, whereas a decrease in glucose levels was observed in the plasma from KKAy mice. Our observations are consistent with reports that POA improves insulin sensitivity [19, 34].

Since it has been reported that endothelial-derived NO production decreases under diabetic conditions and vascular tissue becomes chronically insufficiently relaxed [35], we measured endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. To measure endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, we used ACh and PAR2-AP, which cause NO-mediated vasodilation in the artery [36, 37]. It has been reported that these vasorelaxant responses are impaired under diabetic conditions [38, 39]. Our results also showed that the endothelium-dependent vasodilation by ACh and PAR2-AP were attenuated in aorta from KKAy mice (Fig. 3A, B). There was no change in vasorelaxation in response to the NO donor SNP between C57BL/6 J and KKAy mice fed a reference diet, indicating that endothelial dysfunction occurred in KKAy mice. Because plasma glucose levels are significantly reduced following 2 weeks of POA administration in KKAy mice, we expected an improvement in endothelial function in KKAy-POA. However, endothelial dysfunction in KKAy mice did not improve following POA administration. Although we have reported on several substances that alter endothelial function in the absence of decreased plasma glucose levels [14, 28, 40], POA may not improve endothelial function despite its ability to decrease blood glucose levels. On the other hand, POA-induced changes were observed in the aortic contractile response (Figs. 4 and 5). The Phe-induced contractile response in aorta from KKAy mice reported in this study was enhanced compared with C57BL/6 J mice. It is thought that more pronounced vasoconstriction occurs in diabetic conditions due to an increase in contractile ability combined with a decrease in relaxation ability. Although POA treatment of KKAy diabetic mice for 2 weeks did not change the Phe-induced vasoconstrictive response, enhanced aortic contraction was observed in C57BL/6 J mice after POA administration (Fig. 4). Such elevated aortic contractility is expected to contribute to vascular disorders including coronary artery disease and stroke [41]. In addition, enhanced vasoconstriction in the aorta of C57BL/6 J -POA, KKAy and KKAy-POA mice resulted in further increases under high glucose conditions in vitro (Fig. 5B-D). In our experiments, 11.1 mM and 22.2 mM glucose were used as normal and high glucose conditions, respectively. When vascular tension is measured under high glucose conditions, it is known that arterial contractile responses are significantly increased in diabetes [42]. Activation of the Rho kinase pathway induces enhanced vasoconstrictive responses in vascular smooth muscle in diabetic model animals [43]. It has also been reported that activated PKC and ERK1/2 signals induce the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells leading to increased vasoconstrictive responses in high glucose conditions in vitro [44]. We observed the direct effects of insulin on ex vivo contractility and found that a high-insulin condition alone had no effect on vasoconstriction in aorta from C57BL/6 J and C57BL/6 J -POA (Fig. 5A, B) mice. In contrast, the Phe-induced vasoconstrictive response tended to be enhanced in the aorta of KKAy mice under hyperinsulinemia compared to the insulin-free condition of reference diet fed mice (p = 0.07), and was significantly enhanced in the POA diet fed mice (Fig. 5C, D). Although the effect of insulin on the response of vascular smooth muscle is not well understood, it is known that insulin treatment promotes the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells [45]. In our study, only 30 min insulin administration enhanced the contractile responses of aorta in KKAy and KKAy-POA mice. The vasoconstrictive response in both the high glucose and insulin conditions were similar to those of the high insulin condition alone (Fig. 5). Eicosanoids are biologically active lipid mediators derived from PUFA that are one of the factors thought to enhance vasoconstriction of aortic rings [46]. Changes in the vascular production of prostanoids, a major class of eicosanoids, have been reported in fructose-overloaded rats that show insulin resistance [47]. It is possible that there is an interaction between eicosanoids and insulin. This interaction may contribute to the difference in vascular contractile response between C57BL/6 J and insulin-resistant KKAy mice in the presence of insulin. POA administration significantly enhanced the aortic vasoconstrictive responses in both C57BL/6 J and KKAy mice under the high glucose condition (Fig. 5B, D). Therefore, it was suggested that POA induces enhanced vasoconstriction. POA is also known as a gap junction inhibitor, and it has been reported that inhibition of gap junctions causes a decrease in blood vessel diameter [48]. The increased vasoconstriction in the aorta of POA-fed mice is consistent with this report. Regarding other fatty acids, dietary saturated fatty acid has also been reported to enhance vasoconstriction [49]. On the other hand, it has been reported that PUFA biosynthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells is involved in calcium release associated with Phe-induced vasoconstriction [50]. In addition, dietary fish oil is rich in PUFA and inhibits vasoconstriction in association with reduced thromboxane A2, a vasoconstriction-inducing prostanoid [51]. These reports suggest that the circulating lipid balance, a product of fatty acid intake and biosynthesis, may alter vascular responses. In a clinical study, higher circulating POA in metabolic syndrome was found to be related to cardiometabolic risk [52]. The results of this report indicate that POA causes enhanced vasoconstriction, but further investigation is required to fully elucidate this effect.

Conclusions

Although previous studies showed that POA treatment of diabetes mellitus has the beneficial effect of lowering blood glucose or lipid levels, it has also been shown to increase vasoconstriction, especially under the high glucose and high insulin conditions in this study. Thus, ingestion of high amounts of POA may contribute to increased vascular complications in poorly-controlled diabetes.

Availability of data and materials

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.

Abbreviations

ACh:

Acetylcholine chloride

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

HG:

High glucose condition

HI:

High insulin condition

NEFA:

Non-esterified fatty acid

NG:

Normal glucose

PAR2-AP:

Protease-activated receptor 2-activating protein

PGF :

Prostaglandin F

POA:

Palmitoleic acid

PSS:

Physiologic salt solution

Phe:

Phenylephrine

S.E.M.:

Standard error of mean

SNP:

Sodium nitroprusside dehydrate

ω-3 PUFA:

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

References

  1. Stehouwer CD, Lambert J, Donker AJ, van Hinsbergh VW. Endothelial dysfunction and pathogenesis of diabetic angiopathy. Cardiovasc Res. 1997;34:55–68.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Shi Y, Vanhoutte PM. Macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. J Diabetes. 2017;9:434–49.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Bogdanov VY, Osterud B. Cardiovascular complications of diabetes mellitus: the tissue factor perspective. Thromb Res. 2010;125:112–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Wilson S, Mone P, Kansakar U, Jankauskas SS, Donkor K, Adebayo A, et al. Diabetes and restenosis. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2022;21:23.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Wilmot EG, Edwardson CL, Achana FA, Davies MJ, Gorely T, Gray LJ, et al. Sedentary time in adults and the association with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death: systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2012;55:2895–905.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Mone P, Gambardella J, Minicucci F, Lombardi A, Mauro C, Santulli G. Hyperglycemia drives stent restenosis in STEMI patients. Diabetes Care. 2021;44:e192–3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Yubero-Serrano EM, Delgado-Lista J, Tierney AC, Perez-Martinez P, Garcia-Rios A, Alcala-Diaz JF, et al. Insulin resistance determines a differential response to changes in dietary fat modification on metabolic syndrome risk factors: the LIPGENE study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102:1509–17.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Melanson EL, Astrup A, Donahoo WT. The relationship between dietary fat and fatty acid intake and body weight, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Ann Nutr Metab. 2009;55:229–43.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Julibert A, Bibiloni MDM, Bouzas C, Martínez-González MÁ, Salas-Salvadó J, Corella D, et al. Total and subtypes of dietary fat intake and its association with components of the metabolic syndrome in a mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Nutrients. 2019;11:E1493.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Lamping KG, Nuno DW, Coppey LJ, Holmes AJ, Hu S, Oltman CL, et al. Modification of high saturated fat diet with n-3 polyunsaturated fat improves glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013;15:144–52.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Poudyal H, Panchal SK, Diwan V, Brown L. Omega-3 fatty acids and metabolic syndrome: effects and emerging mechanisms of action. Prog Lipid Res. 2011;50:372–87.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Wakutsu M, Tsunoda N, Shiba S, Muraki E, Kasono K. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)-independent functions of fish oil on glucose and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obese mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:101–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Wakutsu M, Tsunoda N, Mochi Y, Numajiri M, Shiba S, Muraki E, et al. Improvement in the high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia and adiponectin levels by fish oil feeding combined with food restriction in obese KKAy mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76:1011–4.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Takenouchi Y, Ohtake K, Nobe K, Kasono K. Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester improves endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17:118.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Barre DE. The role of consumption of alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in human metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes--a mini-review. J Oleo Sci. 2007;56:319–25.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Watanabe Y, Tatsuno I. Prevention of cardiovascular events with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the mechanism involved. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2020;27:183–98.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. Innes JK, Calder PC. Marine omega-3 (N-3) fatty acids for cardiovascular health: an update for 2020. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21:1362–82.

    Article  CAS  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  18. Poreba M, Mostowik M, Siniarski A, Golebiowska-Wiatrak R, Malinowski KP, Haberka M, et al. Treatment with high-dose n-3 PUFAs has no effect on platelet function, coagulation, metabolic status or inflammation in patients with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2017;16:50.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. Nunes EA, Rafacho A. Implications of palmitoleic acid (palmitoleate) on glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance and diabetes. Curr Drug Targets. 2017;18:619–28.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Petit JM, Guiu B, Duvillard L, Jooste V, Brindisi MC, Athias A, et al. Increased erythrocytes n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids is significantly associated with a lower prevalence of steatosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin Nutr. 2012;31:520–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Mozaffarian D, de Oliveira Otto MC, Lemaitre RN, Fretts AM, Hotamisligil G, Tsai MY, et al. Trans-palmitoleic acid, other dairy fat biomarkers, and incident diabetes: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:854–61.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. Cao H, Gerhold K, Mayers JR, Wiest MM, Watkins SM, Hotamisligil GS. Identification of a lipokine, a lipid hormone linking adipose tissue to systemic metabolism. Cell. 2008;134:933–44.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Frigolet ME, Aguilar GA. The role of the novel lipokine palmitoleic acid in health and disease. Adv Nutr. 2017;8:173S–81S.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Shiba S, Tsunoda N, Wakutsu M, Muraki E, Sonoda M, Tam PS, et al. Regulation of lipid metabolism by palmitoleate and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in mice fed a high-fat diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75:2401–3.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Trayhurn P, Wang B, Wood IS. Hypoxia in adipose tissue: a basis for the dysregulation of tissue function in obesity? Br J Nutr. 2008;100:227–35.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Reeves PG, Nielsen FH, Fahey GC. AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr. 1993;123:1939–51.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Takenouchi Y, Kobayashi T, Matsumoto T, Kamata K. Gender differences in age-related endothelial function in the murine aorta. Atherosclerosis. 2009;206:397–404.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Takenouchi Y, Tsuboi K, Ohsuka K, Nobe K, Ohtake K, Okamoto Y, et al. Chronic treatment with α-lipoic acid improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of aortas in high-fat diet-fed mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2019;42:1456–63.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Nobe K, Takenouchi Y, Kasono K, Hashimoto T, Honda K. Two types of overcontraction are involved in intrarenal artery dysfunction in type II diabetic mouse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014;351:77–86.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Hosoda Y, Okahara F, Mori T, Deguchi J, Ota N, Osaki N, et al. Dietary steamed wheat bran increases postprandial fat oxidation in association with a reduced blood glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in mice. Food Nutr Res. 2017;61:1361778.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Zhang XL, Wang YN, Ma LY, Liu ZS, Ye F, Yang JH. Uncarboxylated osteocalcin ameliorates hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in KKAy mice via activating insulin signaling pathway. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2020;41:383–93.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Bolsoni-Lopes A, Festuccia WT, Chimin P, Farias TS, Torres-Leal FL, Cruz MM, et al. Palmitoleic acid (n-7) increases white adipocytes GLUT4 content and glucose uptake in association with AMPK activation. Lipids Health Dis. 2014;13:199.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. Yang ZH, Miyahara H, Hatanaka A. Chronic administration of palmitoleic acid reduces insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in KK-Ay Mice with genetic type 2 diabetes. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:120.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. Tricò D, Mengozzi A, Nesti L, Hatunic M, Gabriel Sanchez R, Konrad T, et al. Circulating palmitoleic acid is an independent determinant of insulin sensitivity, beta cell function and glucose tolerance in non-diabetic individuals: a longitudinal analysis. Diabetologia. 2020;63:206–18.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Sena CM, Pereira AM, Seiça R. Endothelial dysfunction - a major mediator of diabetic vascular disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1832:2216–31.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. al-Ani B, Saifeddine M, Hollenberg MD. Detection of functional receptors for the proteinase-activated-receptor-2-activating polypeptide, SLIGRL-NH2, in rat vascular and gastric smooth muscle. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995;73:1203–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Moncada S. Nitric oxide in the vasculature: physiology and pathophysiology. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;811:60–7 discussion 67-69.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Matsumoto T, Kobayashi S, Ando M, Iguchi M, Takayanagi K, Kojima M, et al. Alteration of vascular responsiveness to uridine adenosine tetraphosphate in aortas isolated from male diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats: the involvement of prostanoids. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(11):2378.

    Article  CAS  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. El-Daly M, Pulakazhi Venu VK, Saifeddine M, Mihara K, Kang S, Fedak PWM, et al. Hyperglycaemic impairment of PAR2-mediated vasodilation: prevention by inhibition of aortic endothelial sodium-glucose-co-Transporter-2 and minimizing oxidative stress. Vasc Pharmacol. 2018;109:56–71.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Takenouchi Y, Kobayashi T, Matsumoto T, Kamata K. Possible involvement of Akt activity in endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008;106:600–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Tardif K, Hertig V, Dumais C, Villeneuve L, Perrault L, Tanguay JF, et al. Nestin downregulation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells represents an early marker of vascular disease in experimental type I diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2014;13:119.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. Nobe K, Nezu Y, Tsumita N, Hashimoto T, Honda K. Intra- and extrarenal arteries exhibit different profiles of contractile responses in high glucose conditions. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;155:1204–13.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  43. Xie Z, Gong MC, Su W, Xie D, Turk J, Guo Z. Role of calcium-independent phospholipase A2beta in high glucose-induced activation of RhoA, Rho kinase, and CPI-17 in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and vascular smooth muscle hypercontractility in diabetic animals. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:8628–38.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  44. Yang J, Han Y, Sun H, Chen C, He D, Guo J, et al. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate suppresses proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells induced by high glucose by inhibition of PKC and ERK1/2 signalings. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:11483–90.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Shi J, Wang A, Sen S, Wang Y, Kim HJ, Mitts TF, et al. Insulin induces production of new elastin in cultures of human aortic smooth muscle cells. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:715–26.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Smyth EM, Grosser T, Wang M, Yu Y, FitzGerald GA. Prostanoids in health and disease. J Lipid Res. 2009;50(Suppl):S423–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. Puyó AM, Zabalza M, Mayer M, Carranza A, Peredo HA. Time course of vascular prostanoid production in the fructose-hypertensive rat. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2009;29:135–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Maibier M, Bintig W, Goede A, Höpfner M, Kuebler WM, Secomb TW, et al. Gap junctions regulate vessel diameter in chick chorioallantoic membrane vasculature by both tone-dependent and structural mechanisms. Microcirculation. 2020;27:e12590.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Vorn R, Yoo HY. Differential effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on vascular reactivity in isolated mesenteric and femoral arteries of rats. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2019;23:403–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  50. Irvine NA, Lillycrop KA, Fielding B, Torrens C, Hanson MA, Burdge GC. Polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis is involved in phenylephrine-mediated calcium release in vascular smooth muscle cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2015;101:31–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. van den Elsen LW, Spijkers LJ, van den Akker RF, van Winssen AM, Balvers M, Wijesinghe DS, et al. Dietary fish oil improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure via suppression of sphingolipid-mediated contractions in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 2014;32:1050–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  52. Merino J, Sala-Vila A, Plana N, Girona J, Vallve JC, Ibarretxe D, et al. Serum palmitoleate acts as a lipokine in subjects at high cardiometabolic risk. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2016;26:261–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would also like to thank FORTE for their language review of the manuscript.

Funding

This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP26350904 and 19 K11731.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Y.T. designed and performed the experiments, analyzed the data, interpreted the results, and wrote the manuscript. Y.S. performed the experiments, analyzed the data and interpreted the results. S.S., K.O. and K.N. analyzed the data and interpreted the results. K.K. designed the experiments, interpreted the results, and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Yasuhiro Takenouchi or Keizo Kasono.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

All experiments were performed in accordance with the ARRIVE guidelines (https://arriveguidelines.org) and the Guidelines for the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Josai University. The animal experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Josai University.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visithttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Takenouchi, Y., Seki, Y., Shiba, S. et al. Effects of dietary palmitoleic acid on vascular function in aorta of diabetic mice. BMC Endocr Disord 22, 103 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12902-022-01018-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12902-022-01018-2

Keywords

  • Diabetes
  • Palmitoleic acid
  • Thoracic aorta
  • Vasoconstriction