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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of study population

From: Low serum apelin levels are associated with mild cognitive impairment in Type 2 diabetic patients

Variables Non-MCI (n = 162) MCI (n = 73) Z or χ2 P value
Age (year) 64.81 ± 4.95 66.85 ± 5.42 2.838 0.005
Male [n (%)] 89 (54.9%) 34 (46.6%) 1.411 0.235
Education (years) 11.12 ± 2.21 10.05 ± 1.81 3.903  < 0.001
BMI 25.73 ± 1.64 26.04 ± 1.45 1.399 0.163
Smoking 44 (27.2%) 26 (35.6%) 1.720 0.190
Drinking 35 (21.6%) 22 (30.1%) 1.994 0.158
Diabetes duration (years) 8.25 ± 0.97 8.83 ± 1.02 4.186  < 0.001
CVD 72 (44.4%) 47 (64.4%) 8.004 0.005
Hypertension 46 (28.4%) 32 (43.8%) 5.410 0.020
Hyperlipidemia 45 (27.8%) 31 (42.5) 4.962 0.026
Retinopathy 34 (21.0%) 20 (27.4%) 1.168 0.280
Nephropathy 39 (24.1%) 28 (38.4%) 5.036 0.025
Neuropathy 20 (12.3%) 15 (20.5%) 2.671 0.102
HbA1c (%) 7.97 ± 0.67 8.18 ± 0.65 2.233 0.027
TG (mmol/L) 2.64 ± 0.55 2.79 ± 0.43 2.094 0.037
TC (mmol/L) 6.15 ± 0.44 6.35 ± 0.54 2.909 0.004
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.54 ± 0.39 3.70 ± 0.47 2.716 0.007
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.80 ± 0.31 1.66 ± 0.31 3.132 0.002
Creatinine (μmol/L) 72.13 ± 8.44 75.68 ± 7.60 3.074 0.002
Hs-CRP (ng/mL) 2.12 ± 0.41 2.25 ± 0.28 2.961 0.003
BDNF (mIU/L) 9.09 ± 1.64 8.42 ± 1.19 3.556  < 0.001
MoCA 28.05 ± 1.32 23.01 ± 1.35 26.845  < 0.001
Apelin (ng/mL) 1.48 ± 0.35 1.29 ± 0.31 3.987  < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: T2DM Type 2 diabetes, BMI Body mass index, CVD Cardiovascular disease, HbAlc Glycosylated hemoglobin, TG Triglyceride, TC Total cholesterol, LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hs-CRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment
  2. Data are expressed as means and SD for quantitative variables and expressed as cases and percentage for category variables. Mann–Whitney U test (Z), t test or χ2 test was used to test for significant differences