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Table 2 Prevalence of elevated serum liver enzymes in study participants (n = 9895)

From: Serum liver enzymes and diabetes from the Rafsanjan cohort study

Characteristic Elevated ALT P -value Elevated AST P -value Elevated GGT P -value Elevated ALP P -value
Age cat- no. (%) < 0.001   0.905   < 0.001   < 0.001
 35–45 438(49.27)   112(37.58)   310(30.45)   215(22.10)  
 46–55 268(30.15) 94(31.54) 335(32.91) 344(35.35)
 ≥ 56 183(20.58) 92(30.87) 373(36.64) 414(42.55)
Gender- no. (%) < 0.001   0.621   0.001   0.827
 Female 348(39.15)   155(52.01)   595(58.45)   523(53.75)  
 Male 541(60.85) 143(47.99) 423(41.55) 450(46.25)
Education-no. (%) < 0.001   0.090   < 0.001   < 0.001
 ≤ 5 years 255(28.72)   122(40.94)   422(41.49)   463(47.63)  
 6–12 years 444(50.00) 129(43.29) 443(43.56) 403(41.46)
 ≥ 13 years 189(21.28) 47(15.77) 152(14.95) 106(10.91)
Physical activity- no. (%) 0.009   0.042   < 0.001   0.006
 Low 381(42.86)   135(45.30)   450(44.20)   423(43.47)  
 Moderate 409(46.01) 140(46.98) 493(48.43) 460(47.28)
 Heavy 99(11.14) 23(7.72) 75(7.37) 90(9.25)
BMI- no. (%)   < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001   0.038
 < 25 120(13.53)   53(17.79)   167(16.42)   249(25.62)  
 25–29.9 429(48.37) 123(41.28) 464(45.62) 403(41.46)
 ≥ 30 338(38.11) 122(40.94) 386(37.95) 320(32.92)
WSI-no. (%) < 0.001   0.137   < 0.001   < 0.001
 Low 213(23.99)   79(26.51)   274(26.94)   306(31.48)  
 Low-middle 247(27.82) 90(30.20) 316(31.07) 276(28.40)
 Middle-high 328(36.94) 101(33.89) 372(36.58) 352(36.21)
 High 100(11.26) 28(9.40) 55(5.41) 38(3.91)
Alcohol consumption- no. (%) < 0.001   0.006   0.945   0.045
 Yes 142(16.15)   43(14.78)   101(10.05)   114(11.83)  
 No 737(83.85)   248(85.22)   904(89.95)   850(88.17)  
Cigarette smoking -no. (%) 0.311   0.441   0.049   < 0.001
 Yes 213(24.23)   69(23.71)   232(23.08)   318(32.99)  
 No 666(75.77) 222(76.29) 773(76.92) 646(67.01)
Opium consumption- no. (%) 0.001   0.227   0.583   < 0.001
 Yes 168(19.11)   60(20.62)   230(22.89)   307(31.85)  
 No 711(80.89) 231(79.38) 775(77.11) 657(68.15)
Hypertension- no. (%) 0.391   0.019   < 0.001   < 0.001
 Yes 189(21.43)   83(28.23)   297(29.41)   317(32.82)  
 No 693(78.57) 211(71.77) 713(70.59) 649(67.18)
Family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives- no (%) 0.134   0.402   0.053   0.102
 Yes 456(51.70)   152(51.70)   527(52.18)   452(46.79)  
 No 426(48.30) 142(48.30) 483(47.82) 514(53.21)
Family history of diabetes in second-degree relatives- no (%) 0.767   0.322   0.940   0.021
 Yes 213(24.15)   65(22.11)   247(24.46)   208(21.53)  
 No 669(75.85) 229(77.89) 763(75.54) 758(78.47)
Fatty liver- no. (%)   < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001   0.409
 Yes 167(18.93)   53(18.03)   165(16.34)   106(10.97)  
 No 715(81.07) 241(81.97) 845(83.66) 860(89.03)
Hepatitis- no. (%) 0.318   0.016   0.930   0.865
 Yes 4(0.45)   3(1.02)   3(0.30)   3(0.31)  
 No 878(99.55)   291(98.98)   1007(99.70)   963(99. 69)  
Use of hepatotoxic drugs- no. (%) 0.207   0.254   < 0.001   < 0.001
 Yes 197(22.34)   79(26.87)   315(31.19)   304(31.47)  
 No 685(77.66) 215(73.13) 695(68.81) 662(68.53)
Cholesterol- no. (%) < 0.001   0.003   < 0.001   < 0.001
 Normal 394(44.32)   141(47.32)   433(42.53)   487(50.05)  
 Elevated 495(55.68) 157(52.68) 585(57.47) 486(49.95)
Triglycerides- no. (%) < 0.001   0.005   < 0.001   < 0.001
 Normal 557(62.65)   203(68.12)   596(58.55)   662(68.04)  
 Elevated 332(37.35) 95(31.88) 422(41.45) 311(31.96)
LDL cholesterol- no. (%) < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001   0.001
 Normal 633(71.28)   201(67.68)   699(68.73)   712(73.25)  
 Elevated 255(28.72) 96(32.32) 318(31.27) 260(26.75)
HDL cholesterol- no. (%) 0.855   0.479   0.679   0.594
 Normal 885(99.55)   296(99.33)   1013(99.51)   970(99.69)  
 Reduced 4(0.45) 2(0.67) 5(0.49) 3(0.31)
FBS- no. (%)   < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001   < 0.001
 Normal 677(76.15)   217(72.82)   696(68.37)   682(70.09)  
 Elevated 212(23.85) 81(27.18) 322(31.63) 291(29.91)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, FBS Fasting blood sugar, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT, alanine aminotransferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, GGT γ-glutamyl transferase, WSI Wealth score index