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Table 2 Clinical characteristics and disease management practices of study participants in TASH, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2021

From: Evaluation of glycemic control and related factors among outpatients with type 2 diabetes at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

Variables Category Frequency (%)
DM duration, median (IQR)   9 years (4–15)
Duration of DM 2-5 years 50 (15.4)
6-10 years 122 (37.5)
 ≥ 11 years 153 (47.1)
Family history of DM Yes 64 (19.7)
No 261 (80.3)
BMI (kg/m2) Underweight (< 18.5) 10 (3.1)
Normal weight (18.5–24.9) 241 (74.2)
Overweight (25–29.9) 62 (19.1)
Obese (≥ 30) 12 (3.7)
Mode of therapy Oral hypoglycemic agents 93 (28.6)
Insulin 145 (44.6)
Combination of both 75 (23.1)
Diet modification/Exercise alone 12 (3.7)
No. of follow-up visits  ≤ 3 times/year 156 (48)
 > 3 times/year 169 (52)
Medication adherence
(n = 313)
7 days/week (adequate) 228 (70.2)
 < 7 days/week (inadequate) 85 (26.2)
Diet adherence  > 3 days/week (adequate) 168 (51.7)
0-3 days/week (inadequate) 157 (48.3)
Physical exercise  > 3 days/week (Adequate) 138 (42.5)
0-3 days/week (Inadequate) 187 (57.5)
Access to SMBG Yes 136 (41.8)
No 189 (58.2)
Glycemic targets goal (HbA1c/FBS/RBS) Yes 129 (39.7)
No 196 (60.3)
Smoking status Current smoker 8 (2.5)
Ex-smoker (> 1 year) 16 (4.9)
Nonsmoker 301 (92.6)
Co-morbidity Present 129 (39.7)
Absent 196 (60.3)
Type of co-morbidity(ies) Hypertension 63 (19.4)
Dyslipidemia 25 (7.7)
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) 10 (3.1)
Hypertension + IHD 7 (2.2)
Others* 24 (7.4)
Complication Present 114 (35.1)
Absent 211 (64.9)
Type of complication(s) Neuropathy 46 (14.2)
Retinopathy 23 (7.1)
Retinopathy + Neuropathy 21 (6.5)
Retinopathy + Neuropathy + Nephropathy 8 (2.5)
Cardiac complications 16 (4.9)
  1. Others*—Asthma, Thyroid disorders & Obesity
  2. BMI Body Mass Index, SMBG Self-monitoring of blood glucose, HbA1c Hemoglobin A1c, FBS Fasting blood sugar, RBS Random blood sugar