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Table 3 Change in Patient-Reported Self-care, Knowledge, Empowerment, Distress and Diabetes-Related Quality of Life (N = 51)

From: Impact of diabetes group visits on patient clinical and self-reported outcomes in community health centers

  Baseline
(N = 51)
6 Months
(N = 30)
Baseline to 6 months adjusted
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (CI) P-value
Number of days in the past weeka:
 Followed healthful eating plan 3.26 (2.43) 4.82 (1.44) 1.70 (1.30—2.09)  < 0.0001
 Ate 5 + Servings fruits and vegetables 3.82 (2.21) 4.61 (1.85) 0.73 (0.23—1.24) 0.009
 Ate high fat foods 3.67 (2.22) 3.36 (2.11) -0.28 (-0.91—0.34) 0.38
 Checked feet 3.23 (2.65) 3.50 (2.39) 0.30 (-0.20—0.80) 0.24
 Exercised 2.61 (2.25) 3.41 (2.58) 0.56 (0.00—1.12) 0.06
 Checked blood sugar 4.77 (2.41) 6.09 (1.23) 1.34 (1.00—1.68)  < 0.0001
 Took insulin injections 6.35 (1.43) 5.82 (1.74) -0.52 (-1.18—0.14) 0.15
 Took other diabetes medications 6.32 (1.45) 5.70 (1.98) -0.49 (-1.12—0.14) 0.14
Diabetes Knowledgeb (10 is best) 6.93 (1.92) 7.50 (1.62) 0.79 (0.49—1.10)  < 0.0001
Diabetes Empowermentc (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) 3.97 (0.86) 4.30 (0.53) 0.39 (0.23—0.54)  < 0.0001
Diabetes Distress Scaled (1 = not a problem to 6 = a very serious problem) 2.36 (1.18) 1.85 (1.13) -0.54 (-0.84—-0.24) 0.002
 Emotional Burden 2.62 (1.43) 2.03 (1.41) -0.60 (-0.98—-0.23) 0.004
 Physician-related Distress 1.58 (1.21) 1.29 (0.95) -0.43 (-0.66—-0.19) 0.002
 Regimen-related Distress 2.98 (1.47) 2.04 (1.24) -0.84 (-1.17—-0.51)  < 0.0001
 Interpersonal Distress 1.86 (1.32) 1.98 (1.45) 0.01 (-0.37—0.38) 0.98
Diabetes-related Quality of Lifee 2.25 (0.70) 1.93 (0.51) -0.23 (-0.38—-0.08) 0.007
 Dissatisfaction with glycemic stability (1 = very satisfied to 5 = very dissatisfied) 2.29 (0.81) 1.81 (0.63) -0.34 (-0.50—-0.19) 0.0004
 Social worry (1 = never to 5 = all the time) 2.17 (0.79) 2.03 (0.64) -0.07 (-0.29—0.15) 0.55
  1. For each measure, the adjusted mean difference is from a linear mixed model that adjusts for the random effects of patients nested within clinics, and repeated effects of the measure over time. In addition, each model adjusts for the effects of time, baseline outcomes, and interaction between baseline outcome and time. All participants who completed the baseline interview and had any follow-up data
  2. aSummary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities[17]
  3. bDiabetes Knowledge Questionnaire[16]
  4. cDiabetes Self-empowerment Scale[18]
  5. dDiabetes Distress Scale[19]
  6. eDiabetes-related Quality of Life[20]