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Table 3 Characteristics of the study participants between low, medium and high adherence of unhealthy dietary pattern

From: The healthy/unhealthy dietary pattern is associated with resting metabolic rate status among women with overweight/obesity

Adherence of UHDP Low Medium High P2 P3,4
n = 132 n = 159 n = 159
Parameters
 Age (years) 37.85 ± 7.57 b, c 37.01 ± 9.13 a, c 34.69 ± 8.53 a, b 0.02 0.16
 Height (cm) 161.03 ± 6.52 160.61 ± 5.58 162.24 ± 5.56 0.13 0.56
 Weight (kg) 80.58 ± 11.00 79.65 ± 12.32 81.91 ± 13.27 0.43 0.55
 BMI 31.08 ± 3.93 30.78 ± 4.20 31.29 ± 4.82 0.71 0.60
RMR parameters
 RMR measure (kcal/day) 1544.8 ± 255.81 1580.1 ± 276.87 1606.1 ± 243.24 0.26 0.42
 RMR normal (kcal/day) 1709.1 ± 132.13 b, c 1696.0 ± 143.50 a, c 1750.8 ± 170.09 a, b 0.03 0.23
 Deviation normal (%) −9.72 ± 11.90 −6.85 ± 14.05 −8.20 ± 11.93 0.29 0.29
 V.O2 (L/min) 0.22 ± 0.03 0.22 ± 0.03 0.22 ± 0.03 0.38 0.53
 V.CO2 (L/min) 0.18 ± 0.03 0.19 ± 0.03 0.19 ± 0.03 0.20 0.39
 RQ 0.85 ± 0.04 0.85 ± 0.04 0.85 ± 0.03 0.86 0.73
 RMR/kg (kcal/day/kg) 19.21 ± 2.76 20.13 ± 3.40 19.61 ± 3.11 0.12 0.14
 RMR/BSA (kcal/day/m2) 835.04 ± 110.75 863.53 ± 127.53 858.51 ± 102.79 0.18 0.29
Body composition
 Protein (kg) 9.16 ± 1.16 9.10 ± 1.07 9.22 ± 1.02 0.75 0.51
 Minerals (kg) 3.22 ± 0.45 3.19 ± 0.40 3.25 ± 0.37 054 0.65
 Body fat mass (kg) 33.66 ± 7.39 33.10 ± 8.64 35.25 ± 9.75 0.20 0.17
 Fat free mass (kg) 46.81 ± 5.95 46.41 ± 5.50 47.12 ± 5.30 0.67 0.29
 Bone mineral content (kg) 2.67 ± 0.38 2.63 ± 0.33 2.69 ± 0.31 0.47 0.66
 Skeletal muscle mass (kg) 25.69 ± 3.53 25.52 ± 3.26 25.82 ± 3.11 0.81 0.17
 Soft lean mass (kg) 44.14 ± 5.58 43.45 ± 5.33 44.41 ± 5.02 0.42 0.33
 Body fat percentage (%) 41.63 ± 4.97 41.03 ± 5.51 41.88 ± 6.08 0.55 0.26
 Waist hip ratio 0.93 ± 0.05 1.86 ± 9.24 0.93 ± 0.05 0.37 0.50
 Waist circumference (cm) 98.89 ± 9.05 98.08 ± 10.34 99.91 ± 10.67 0.44 0.30
 Visceral fat area (cm2) 163.08 ± 34.47 175.56 ± 172.92 166.16 ± 43.84 0.69 0.64
 Visceral fat level 15.64 ± 3.10 16.52 ± 14.02 17.81 ± 19.94 0.56 0.52
Blood parameters
 FBS (mg/dl) 85.87 ± 8.11b, c 89.44 ± 11.52 a, c 87.37 ± 8.84 a, b 0.05 0.01
 T-Chol (mg/dl) 185.04 ± 35.53 185.85 ± 39.03 184.56 ± 34.54 0.97 0.47
 TG (mg/dl) 122.84 ± 76.18 129.68 ± 74.78 114.73 ± 58.00 0.41 0.38
 HDL-C (mg/dl) 46.75 ± 10.84 46.36 ± 11.65 47.32 ± 10.10 0.85 0.65
 LDL-C (mg/dl) 95.34 ± 23.83 94.81 ± 24.85 94.89 ± 24.22 0.98 0.81
 GOT (UI/L) 17.86 ± 8.01 17.77 ± 6.07 17.83 ± 7.84 0.99 0.83
 GPT (UI/L) 18.53 ± 13.72 19.32 ± 10.98 19.67 ± 14.06 0.84 0.93
 hs-CRP (mg/L) 3.92 ± 4.42 4.45 ± 5.02 4.63 ± 4.55 0.59 0.26
  1. UHDP unhealthy dietary pattern, RMR resting metabolic rate, BMI body mass index, VO2 volume of oxygen, VCO2 volume of carbon dioxide, RQ respiratory quotient, FFM fat-free mass, FBS fasting blood sugar, TG triglyceride, T-chol total cholesterol, HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GOT Aspartate Aminotransferase, GPT Alanine Aminotransferase, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. N = 304
  2. 1 Mean ± SD
  3. 2 P-values are resulted from ANOVA (Analysis of variance)
  4. 3 P-values are resulted from ANCOVA
  5. 4After adjustment for age, FFM, energy intake, and physical activity (METs/d)
  6. a Significant compared with low adherence
  7. b Significant compared with medium adherence
  8. c Significant compared with high adherence