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Table 1 Sociodemographic, clinical, and biochemical characteristics of the participants according to the DD categories (N = 259)

From: Prevalence and predictors of diabetes distress among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a facility-based cross-sectional study of Bangladesh

Variables Subgroups All subjects (N = 259) Without DD (DDS < 2) (n = 123) With DD (DDS ≥ 2) (n = 136) p value
mean ± SD or median (IQR) or n(%)  
Age (years)   50.36 ± 12.7 50.50 ± 11.9 50.22 ± 13.4 0.858
Age group < 50 years 121 (46.7) 58 (47.2) 63 (46.3) 0.901
≥50 years 138 (53.3) 65 (52.8) 73 (53.7)  
Gender Male 142 (54.8) 72 (58.5) 70 (51.5) 0.263
Female 117 (45.2) 51 (41.5) 66 (48.5)  
Residence Urban 162 (62.5) 86 (69.9) 76 (55.9) 0.021
Rural 97 (37.5) 37 (30.1) 60 (44.1)  
Monthly income category (in BDT) < 20,000 99 (38.2) 46 (37.4) 53 (39.0) 0.482
20,000-40,000 107 (41.3) 55 (44.7) 52 (38.2)  
≥40,000 53 (20.5) 22 (17.9) 31 (22.8)
Education < Higher secondary 161 (62.2) 74 (60.2) 87 (64) 0.608
≥ Higher secondary 98 (37.8) 49 (39.8) 49 (36)  
Current smoker No 238 (91.9) 111 (90.2) 127 (93.4) 0.373
Yes 21 (8.1) 12 (9.8) 9 (6.6)  
DM in First-Degree Relative No 86 (33.2) 41 (33.3) 45 (33.1) 1.000
Yes 173 (66.8) 82 (66.7) 91 (66.9)  
Age at diagnosis of DM < 40 years 105 (40.5) 46 (37.4) 59 (43.4) 0.375
≥40 years 154 (59.5) 77 (62.6) 77 (56.6)  
Duration of DM (years)   6 (3–11) 6 (2–11) 5.5 (3–10) 0.967
Duration of DM 1–5 years 129 (49.8) 61 (49.6) 68 (50) 0.780
> 5–10 years 65 (25.1) 29 (23.6) 36 (26.5)  
> 10 years 65 (25.1) 33 (26.8) 32 (23.5)  
BMI (kg/m2)   24.04 ± 3.3 24.16 ± 2.7 23.9 ± 3.7 0.560
Overweight or obese 163 (62.9) 80 (65) 83 (61) 0.522
WC (cm) 87.2 ± 9.3 87.9 ± 7.8 86.6 ± 10.5 0.271
Abdominal obesity 161 (62.2) 78 (63.4) 83 (61) 0.702
HbA1c (%) 8.12 ± 2.3 7.72 ± 2.0 8.49 ± 2.5 0.008
Control of DM Controlled 83 (32) 48 (39) 35 (25.7) 0.024
Uncontrolled 176 (68) 75 (61) 101 (74.3)  
Treatment of DM Lifestyle only 5 (1.9) 1 (0.8) 4 (2.9) < 0.001
Lifestyle + OAD 139 (53.7) 84 (68.3) 55 (40.4)  
Lifestyle + insulin 65 (25.1) 23 (18.7) 42 (30.9)  
Lifestyle + OAD + insulin 50 (19.3) 15 (12.2) 35 (25.7)  
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)   0.9 (0.8–1.2) 0.9 (0.8–1.2) 0.95 (0.8–1.2) 0.643
Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 81.9 (60.1–101.4) 86.5 (60.5–102.1) 79.0 (58.6–98.7) 0.040
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 197.4 ± 39.1 198.8 ± 36.8 196.2 ± 41.2 0.589
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 39.9 ± 7.5 40.4 ± 6.6 39.4 ± 8.2 0.255
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 127.3 ± 34.7 127.7 ± 33.7 126.9 ± 35.6 0.836
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 188.9 ± 60.9 179.9 ± 59.9 197.1 ± 60.9 0.023
Dyslipidemia 258 (99.6) 123 (100) 135 (99.3) 1.000
Any diabetic complication 158 (61) 60 (48.8) 98 (72.1) < 0.001
Nephropathy 92 (35.5) 36 (29.3) 56 (41.2) 0.052
Retinopathy 48 (18.5) 16 (13) 32 (23.5) 0.037
Neuropathy 64 (24.7) 22 (17.9) 42 (30.9) 0.021
IHD 44 (17.0) 21 (17.1) 23 (16.9) 1.000
Stroke 5 (1.9) 3 (2.4) 2 (1.5) 0.671
Foot ulcer 9 (3.5) 2 (1.6) 7 (5.1) 0.177
Recurrent infections 24 (9.3) 5 (4.1) 19 (14) 0.009
Any comorbidity 103 (39.8) 49 (39.8) 54 (39.7) 1.000
HTN 91 (35.1) 46 (37.4) 45 (33.1) 0.515
Meets WHO recommendations on physical activity Yes 173 (66.8) 90 (73.2) 83 (61) 0.047
No 86 (33.2) 33 (26.8) 53 (39)  
PDAQ Total Score   29.74 ± 10.5 30.68 ± 10.6 28.89 ± 10.3 0.169
PHQ-9 Score 8.54 ± 5.8 6.98 ± 5.2 9.96 ± 5.4 < 0.001
Major depression Absent 154 (59.5) 92 (74.8) 62 (45.6) < 0.001
Present 105 (40.5) 31 (25.2) 74 (54.4)  
  1. p values by Student’s t test, Chi-square test, or Mann–Whitney U test as applicable
  2. BDT Bangladeshi Taka, BMI Body mass index, WC Waist circumference, HDL High-density lipoprotein, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, IHD Ischemic heart disease, HTN Hypertension