Skip to main content

Table 1 Selected key study relevant demographic and clinical characteristics of the entire study cohort of adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), and by weight sub-group based on body mass index (BMI). Data are presented as median and interquartile range (IQ), and as percentages for frequencies. An estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) cut-off value of <8 was applied to identify individuals with double diabetes (T1DM combined with insulin resistance). Microalbuminuria was defined as urine albumin/creatinine ratio >3 mg/mmol. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure >140/90 mmHg or a documented relevant diagnosis in the electronic Participant record. ACEI, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors; ARB, Angiotensin II receptor blockers; BMI: body mass index; eGDR: estimated glucose disposal rate; HbA1c: haemoglobin A1c. *p-value <0.05 for overweight/obesity vs. normal BMI.

From: The association between overweight/obesity and double diabetes in adults with type 1 diabetes; a cross-sectional study

Selected study relevant characteristics Entire study cohort(n=107) Sub-group  
Normal BMI(n=50) Overweight (n=30) Obesity(n=27) Overweight/obesity(n=57)
Age at clinic (years) 30.0 (23.0-49.5) 26.0 (22.0-47.3) 30.5 (23.0-54.0) 38.0 (25.0-51.0) 34 (23.5-51.0)
Age at diagnosis (years) 17.0 (11.0-27.0) 18.0 (11.0-27.5) 18.0 (11.8-28.3) 15.0 (7.0-25.0) 17.0 (9.0-27.5)
Diabetes duration (years) 12.0 (5.5-23.5) 9.5 (4.0-17.0) 12.0 (7.5-25.0) 19.0 (10.0-31.0) 15.0 (9.0-27.0)*
Female [n (%)] 51 (48) 22 (44) 15 (50) 14 (52) 29 (51)
Body weight (kg) 74.3 (63.6-87.4) 63.8 (60.1 -73.7) 74.5 (68.5-81.9) 93.9 (87.4-111) 82.0 (74.0-95.7)*
BMI (kg/m2) 25.4 (22.8-29.8) 22.8 (20.6-23.9) 26.3 (25.8-27.7) 34.4 (31.2-37.8) 29.4 (26.1-34.3)*
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 70.0 (62.0-80.0) 70.0 (61.0-81.5) 70.5 (61.8-79.0) 70.0 (63.0-81.0) 70.0 (63-79.5)
Total Insulin dose (units) 49.0 (36.0-65.0) 42 (30.9-53.8) 51.5 (34.8-65.5) 78.0 (60.0-120.0) 60 (46.0-83.0)*
Insulin dose (unit/kg/day) 0.68 (0.53-0.89) 0.66 (0.48-0.76) 0.67 (0.51-0.86) 0.85 (0.56-1.1) 0.75 (0.56-0.95)*
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.3 (3.6-4.9) 4.2 (3.5-4.9) 4.4 (3.6-4.9) 4.4 (3.8-5.0) 4.4 (3.6-5.0)
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 1.2 (0.7-1.8) 1.3 (0.9-2.0) 1.3 (0.8-1.8)
HDL Cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.4 (1.2-1.8) 1.6 (1.3-1.9) 1.5 (1.2-1.9) 1.3 (1.1-1.5) 1.4 (1.1-1.7)*
LDL Cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.3 (1.7-2.9) 2.2 (1.6-2.6) 2.3 (2.0-3.0) 2.8 (1.8-3.4) 2.5 (1.9-3.1)
Hypertension, [n (%)] 20 (19) 4 (8) 7 (23) 9 (33) 16 (28)*
Statins [n (%)] 33 (31) 11 (22) 8 (27) 14 (52) 22 (39)
ACEI/ARB [n (%)] 22 (21) 4 (8) 6 (20) 12 (44) 18 (32)*
Metformin [n (%)] 9 (8) 2 (4) 1 (3) 6 (22) 7 (12)
Microalbuminuria, [n (%)] 17 (16) 5 (10) 5 (17) 7 (26) 12 (21)
eGDR 7.4 (5.7-8.7) 8.7 (7.4-9.7) 7.4 (6.0-8.2) 4.5 (3.7-6.8) 6.3 (4.5-7.6)*
Double diabetes, [n (%)] 62 (58) 14 (28) 21 (70) 27 (100) 48/57 (84)*