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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the population studied according to comorbidities in Colombia 2014-2019

From: The effect of comorbidities on glycemic control among Colombian adults with diabetes mellitus: a longitudinal approach with real-world data

Variablesa   Comorbiditiesd
Total (n = 969,531) DM only HTN CKD Obesity
  Yes (n = 144,910) No (n = 824,621) ASDe (%) Yes (n = 693,015) No (n = 276,516) ASDe (%) Yes (n = 297,198) No (n = 672,333) ASDe (%) Yes (n = 341,592) No (n = 627,435) ASDe (%)
Age (y) 61.4 (13.2) 55.0 (13.0) 62.5 (13.0) 58.5 64.0 (12.4) 55.0 (13.0) 71.5 65.1 (14.0) 60.0 (12.6) 40.1 59.4 (12.7) 62.4 (13.4) 23.0
Female 563,687 (58.1) 70,424 (48.6) 493,263 (60.0) 22.6 420,943 (60.7) 142,744 (51.6) 18.4 420,943 (57.6) 142,744 (59.2) 3.1 346,158 (55.7) 217,094 (63.5) 17.1
Health insurance
 Third payer 734,398 (75.7) 108,856 (75.1) 625,542 (76.0) 3.1 528,788 (76.3) 20,561 (74.3) 5.4 217,168 (73.0) 517,230 (77.0) 9.2 271,457 (79.4) 462,723 (73.7) 13.6
 State 230,448 (23.8) 35,529 (24.5) 194,919 (23.6) 160,578 (23.1) 69,870 (25.2) 78,500 (26.4) 151,948 (22.6) 68,564 (20.0) 161,600 (25.7)
 Special 1946 (0.2) 319 (0.2) 2312 (0.3) 1576 (0.2) 370 (0.1) 486 (0.1) 1460 (0.2) 687 (0.2) 1258 (0.2)
 Exception 2631 (0.2) 202 (0.1) 1744 (0.2) 1988 (0.2) 643 (0.2) 982 (0.3) 1649 (0.2) 853 (0.2) 1777 (0.3)
 Uninsured 108 (0.1) 4 (0.0) 104 (0.01) 85 (0.1) 23 (0.1) 62 (0.2) 46 (0.1) 31 (0.1) 77 (0.1)
Region of residence
 Bogotá, D.C. 196,815 (20.3) 32,666 (22.5) 164,149 (20.0) 17.1 134,398 (19.4) 62,417 (22.5) 16.5 55,182 (18.5) 141,633 (21.0) 20.2 72,354 (21.1) 124,389 (20.0) 8.2
 Caribbean 168,465 (17.4) 29,317 (20.2) 139,148 (17.0) 117,582 (17.0) 50,883 (18.4) 44,985 (15.1) 123,480 (18.3) 53,045 (15.5) 115,317 (18.3)
 Eastern 131,918 (13.6) 21,638 (15.0) 110,280 (13.3) 89,233 (13.0) 42,685 (15.4) 40,145 (13.5) 91,773 (13.6) 48,960 (14.3) 82,882 (13.2)
   Central 286,454 (29.5) 38,127 (26.3) 248,327 (30.1) 215,779 (31.1) 70,675 (25.5) 84,402 (28.4) 202,052 (30.0) 102,160 (30.0) 184,124 (29.3)
   Pacific 178,174 (18.4) 21,415 (14.8) 156,759 (19.0) 131,532 (19.0) 46,642 (17.0) 70,492 (23.7) 107,682 (16.0) 62,450 (18.2) 115,652 (18.4)
   Amazonian 7705 (0.8) 1747 (1.21) 5958 (0.7) 4491 (0.6) 3214 (1.1) 1992 (0.6) 5713 (0.8) 2623 (0.7) 5071 (0.8)
Ethnicityb
 Indigenous 5078 (0.5) 1275 (1.0) 3803 (0.4) 5.6 2883 (0.4) 2195 (0.8) 6.9 1427 (0.5) 3651 (0.5) 16.1 1174 (0.3) 3892 (0.6) 5.3
 Afro descendant 34,514 (3.5) 4608 (3.2) 29,906 (3.6) 22,852 (3.3) 11,662 (4.2) 17,220 (5.8) 17,294 (2.5) 10,765 (3.2) 23,730 (3.8)
 Other 929,939 (96.0) 139,027 (96.0) 790,912 (96.0) 667,280 (96.2) 262,659 (95.0) 278,551 (93.7) 651,388 (97.0) 329,653 (96.5) 599,813 (95.6)
Age at DM diagnosis (y) 59.2 (13.0) 53.2 (13.0) 60.3 (12.7) 55.3 61.7 (12.1) 53.1 (13.0) 68.3 62.2 (13.5) 58.0 (12.4) 33.1 63.5 (17.1) 57.4 (12.3) 22.0
DM duration (y)c 2.76 (1.0-6.0) 1.8 (0.5-4.3) 3.0 (0.9-6.0) 25.5 3.1 (1.0-6.3) 2.0 (0.5-4.3) 37.7 3.2 (1.1-6.6) 2.5 (0.7-5.4) 21.3 2.7 (1.0-5.6) 3.0 (1.0-6.1) 4.3
BMI (kg/m2)c 28.1 (25.3-31.5) 26.0 (24.0-28.0) 28.7 (25.7-32.2) 83.3 28.4 (25.5-32.6) 27.4 (25.1-30.7) 19.6 27.3 (24.5-30.6) 28.5 (25.7-32.3) 25.2 33.1 (31.2-35.7) 26.2 (24.1-28.1) 32.2
HTN diagnosis 693,015 (71.5) NA 693,015 (84.0) NA NA NA NA 229,972 (33.1) 67,226 (24.3) 19.2 259,533 (76.0) 433,196 (69.0) 15.5
Glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m) c,f 79.1 (21.5) 77.1 (21.2) NA NA 75.4 (20.8) 87.3 (20.0) 57.3 70.3 (23.8) NA NA 77.3 (24.8) 77.4 (21.5) 12.4
CKD diagnosis 297,198 (30.6) NA 297,198 (36.0) NA 229,972 (33.1) 67,226 (24.3) 19.6 NA NA NA 86,599 (25.3) 210,361 (33.5) 18.0
CKD stages c
 1 65,644 (22.4) NA 65,644 (22.3) NA 38,594 (17.0) 27,050 (41.2) 67.0 65,644 (22.4) NA NA 24,404 (28.5) 41,181 (20.0) 21.3
 2 128,930 (43.9) 128,930 (44.0) 100,570 (44.1) 28,360 (43.1) 128,930 (44.0) 35,281 (41.2) 93,544 (45.0)
 3 84,639 (28.9) 84,639 (29.0) 75,879 (33.3) 8760 (13.4) 84,639 (28.8) 22,326 (26.1) 62,263 (30.0)
 4 7522 (2.6) 7522 (2.5) 6907 (3.1) 615 (1.0) 7522 (2.6) 2212 (2.5) 5307 (2.5)
 5 6571 (2.2) 6571 (2.2) 5683 (2.5) 888 (1.3) 6571 (2.2) 1304 (1.5) 5258 (2.5)
Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) c 341,592 (35.2) NA 341,592 (41.4) 259,533 (37.4) 82,059 (29.7) 16.4 254,993 (38.4) 86,599 (29.1) 18.6 NA NA NA
  1. Abbreviations: DM diabetes mellitus, HTN hypertension, CKD chronic kidney disease, BMI body mass index
  2. a Values are absolute values (percentages) for categorical variables. In case of numeric variables, they correspond to mean (SDs) or median (IQRs)
  3. b Other category includes people self-recognized as white, mestizo, gypsy or not classified
  4. c Less than 5% missing values, except for DM duration in which missing data ranged from 14 to 25%
  5. d Differences between groups were evaluated by using X2 and Wilcoxon tests for categorical and numeric data, respectively. All p-values were < 0.001
  6. e Absolute standardized difference (ASD), values > 10% were considered significant
  7. f Glomerular filtration rates reported are from patients with CKD diagnosis