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Table 1 Characteristics of the Included Studies

From: Association of circulating omega 3, 6 and 9 fatty acids with gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

  First auther/ year Type of study country GDM/ control age (year)
GDM/ control
BMI (kg/m2)
GDM/ control
Diagnostic criteria sample type
1 White SL
2017
cohort UK 198/ 448 31.5 ± 4.6 30.5 ± 5.6 36.1 (33.0–39.4) 34.7 (32.6–38.5) IADPSG plasma, serum or whole blood FFAs
2 Chen XH
2019
cohort USA 81/ 1287 26.01 ± 6.05 21.90 ± 5.03 30.08 ± 6.42 25.37 ± 6.21 Carpenter/Coustan plasma FFAs
3 Chen XH
2010
nested case-control USA 49/ 98 25.63 ± 0.81 21.29 ± 0.54 30.76 ± 0.93
25.40 ± 0.56
Carpenter/Coustan serum FFAs
4 Li XP
2020
nested case-control China 305/ 305 30.6 ± 4.4 30.1 ± 4.1 22.4 ± 3.2
20.5 ± 2.6
IADPSG plasma FFAs
5 Enquobahrie DA
2015
nested case-control USA 178/ 180 34.0 ± 4.8 33.1 ± 4.3 26.7 ± 7.2
23.4 ± 5.3
Carpenter/Coustan Serum FFAs
6 Lehmann R 2015 case-control Germany 9/ 15 32 ± 1
30 ± 1
29.8 ± 2.5
25.6 ± 0.8
IADPSG plasma FFAs
7 Burlina S
2016
case-control Italy 21/ 21 33.9 ± 3.9 33.2 ± 4.6 24.6 ± 6.2
22.8 ± 4.0
Carpenter/Coustan Plasma phospholipid fatty acids
8 Wijendran V 1999 case-control Hartford, CT 15/ 15 32.13 ± 3.253 29.33 ± 3.99 25.95 ± 5.89
23.30 ± 2.98
O’Sullivan and Mahan plasma phospholipid fatty acids
9 Zhu YY
2019
nested case-control California 107/ 214 30.5 ± 5.7 30.4 ± 5.4 Carpenter/Coustan plasma phospholipid fatty acids
10 Min YJ
2006
case-control Korea 12/ 12 31.5 ± 4.4
28.3 ± 2.8
21.4 ± 2.6
21.0 ± 1.7
National Diabetes Data Group Criteria plasma phospholipid fatty acids
11 Kumatani S 2019 cohort Japan 17/ 188 plasma FFAs
12 Johansen NJ 2018 Denmark 9/ 6 31 ± 6
28 ± 3
31.6 ± 6.4
29.7 ± 5.4
plasma FFAs
13 De La Garza Puentes A 2016 Population based cohort Spain 44/ 135 plasma phospholipid fatty acids
14 Muñoz-Nava, M. A.
2018
Mexico 50/ 50 serum FFAs
15 Poole A
2015
cohort Galvestone, TX 7/ 6 33.6 ± 5.9
28.3 ± 5.2
41 ± 11.4
38 ± 6.2
serum FFAs