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Table 1 The characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for low bone density: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Country Design Participant Diagnose Sex Sample size Diabetes type
Shaw CK 1993 [33] China-Taiwan Case-controlled study Volunteers (15 to 83 years old) living in Lin-Kou Township BMD of the lumbar spine (L2 to L4) measured by dual-photon absorptiometry (DP4, Lunar Radiation Corp, Madison, WI) Female and male 404 Both
Chumnumnawin M 2008 [34] Thailand Case-controlled study Priests older than 20 years old to the out-patients Department of Priest Hospital with other complaints BMD of calcaneum measured by ultrasonography Both 659 Both
El-Heis MA 2013 [35] Jordan Case-controlled study Women referred to the Radiology Department at King Abdullah University Hospital BMD of the lumbar spine (L1 to L4) and femoral hip (neck, trochanter) measured by DXA Female 384 Both
Zhou R 2013 [36] China Case-controlled study Sampled from three randomly selected communities in Chongqing, aged 60 and over BMD of the femoral neck measured by DXA (Prodigy fan beam densitometer; Lunar, GE Medical System, Madison, WI) Both 1729 Both
Daisuke A 2015 [37] Japan Case-controlled study Consecutive outpatients aged 50 years at our hospital BMD of the lumbar spine (L2 to L4) measured by DXA Both 255 T2DM
Saei GNM 2015 [38] Iran Case-controlled study 360 non-pregnant women over the age of 15 who referred for bone density testing to the Urmia Imam Khomeini Academic Hospital BMD of the femoral neck and the lumbar spine L1-L4 measured by DXA Female 360 Both
Liu D 2016 [39] China Case-controlled study Local elderly people in 8 communities Chongqing city BMD of vertebral and femoral neck measured by DXA (GE Medical Systems, Madison, WI) Both 1802 Both
Neglia C 2016 [40] Italy Case-controlled study Postmenopausal subjects from the Ionian and Salento Osteoporosis Registry/Euro Mediterranean Registry of Osteoporosis AD-SoS T-score of distal metaphysis of the first phalanges by ultrasound measurements performed by DBM Sonic Bone Profiler 1200 Female 4909 T1/2DM
Dana H 2017 [41] Jordan Case-controlled study All Jordanian women aged over 45 years, of menopausal duration of more than 1 year BMD of the lumbar spine L1–L4 and left femoral neck measured by DXA Female 1079 T2DM
Heidari B 2017 [42] Iran Case-controlled study Aged 60 years and older from the Amirkola health and ageing project cohort BMD of the lumbar spine (L2 to L4) and femoral neck measured by DXA Both 553 Both
Lee SH 2017 [43] Korea Representative case-controlled study Adults older than 50 years of age from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey BMD of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total proximal femur measured by DXA (Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) Both 1081 Both
Lin HH 2018 [44] China-Taiwan Case-controlled study Participants older than 50 years, underwent a health examination at a preventive examination agency in urban Taiwan BMD of the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck measured by DXA (LunarProdigy Advance; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI, USA) Both 2007 Both
Yoo JE 2018 [45] Korea Case-controlled study Men aged ≥30 years and who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey BMD of the femoral neck, totalfemur, and lumbar spine (L1–L4) measured by DXA (DISCOVERY-W fan-beam densitometer;Hologic, Bedford, MA, USA) Male 6104 Both
Wang Y 2019 [46] China Case-controlled study General middle-aged and older population in China Mean BMD measured by DXA (Alara Inc., Fremont, CA, US) Both 6267 Both
  1. BMD bone mineral density, DXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry