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Table 1 Participant characteristics by incident type 2 diabetes status

From: Associations of leptin and adiponectin with incident type 2 diabetes and interactions among African Americans: the Jackson heart study

CharacteristicnIncident type 2 diabetesP-value*
Yes (n = 584)No (n = 2779)
Sex, n (%)   0.82
 Male1230216 (37.0%)1014 (36.5%) 
 Female2133368 (63.0%)1765 (63.5%) 
 Total33635842779 
Education Level, n (%)   <.01
 Less than high school459102 (17.5%)357 (12.9%) 
 High school graduate645121 (20.8%)524 (18.9%) 
 Some college1002174 (29.9%)828 (29.8%) 
 Bachelor’s degree or higher1250185 (31.8%)1065 (38.4%) 
 Total33565822774 
Smoking Status, n (%)   0.07
 Never2368388 (67.6%)1980 (71.7%) 
 Former569116 (20.2%)453 (16.4%) 
 Current39770 (12.2%)327 (11.8%) 
 Total33345742760 
Alcohol Consumption, n (%)   0.20
 Abstaining1678316 (55.1%)1362 (50.4%) 
  < 1 drink/week858147 (25.7%)711 (26.3%) 
 1–7 drinks/week51978 (14.0%)441 (16.8%) 
 8–14 drinks/week12617 (3.0%)109 (4.0%) 
  > 14 drinks/week9615 (2.6%)81 (3.0%) 
 Total32775732704 
Anti-hypertensive Medication, n (%)   <.0001
 Yes1404326 (59.9%)1078 (41.2%) 
 No1756218 (40.1%)1538 (58.8%) 
 Total31605442616 
Anti-hypertriglyceridemic Medication, n (%)   0.30
 Yes62 (0.4%)4 (0.2%) 
 No3081531 (99.6%)2550 (99.8%) 
 Total30875332554 
Anti-hyperlipidemic Medication, n (%)   < 0.01
 Yes27566 (12.4%)209 (8.2%) 
 No2812467 (87.6%)2345 (91.8%) 
 Total30875332554 
Age (years), mean ± se336354.7 ± 0.552.5 ± 0.2<.0001
Physical activity score, mean ± se31838.4 ± 0.18.8 ± 0.05<.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg), mean ± se3354128.0 ± 0.7124.4 ± 0.3<.0001
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± se336033.6 ± 0.330.7 ± 0.1<.0001
Waist (cm), mean ± se3360104.9 ± 0.697.3 ± 0.3<.0001
 Male1228104.9 ± 0.998.4 ± 0.5 
 Female2132104.9 ± 0.896.6 ± 0.4 
LDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL), mean ± se3326128.8 ± 1.6127.0 ± 0.70.29
HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL), mean ± se333949.2 ± 0.552.8 ± 0.3<.0001
 Male122644.0 ± 0.747.0 ± 0.4 
 Female211352.3 ± 0.756.1 ± 0.3 
Total Cholesterol (mg/dL), mean ± se3339200.9 ± 1.7198.7 ± 0.70.24
Triglyceride (mg/dL), mean ± se3339114.3 ± 2.595.2 ± 1.0<.0001
Lipoprotein(a), mean ± se325658.0 ± 2.058.4 ± 0.80.83
HOMA-IR, mean ± se32104.9 ± 0.13.3 ± 0.04<.0001
Fasting insulin (ug/mL), mean ± se334320.8 ± 0.514.7 ± 0.2<.0001
Fasting Glucose (mg/dL), mean ± se323897.1 ± 0.488.9 ± 0.2<.0001
HbA1c, mean ± se32865.9 ± 0.05.4 ± 0.01<.0001
Circulating Plasma leptin (ng/mL), mean ± se331932.1 ± 1.126.0 ± 0.4<.0001
 Male121913.3 ± 0.79.8 ± 0.3 
 Female210043.4 ± 1.535.4 ± 0.5 
Circulating Plasma leptin, n (%)‡   <.0001
 Quartile 180475 (13.0%)729 (26.6%) 
 Quartile 2835136 (23.5%)699 (25.5%) 
 Quartile 3839149 (25.7%)690 (25.2%) 
 Quartile 4841219 (37.8%)622 (22.7%) 
 Total33195792740 
Circulating Plasma Adiponectin (ng/mL), mean ± se32994091.9 ± 115.15566.3 ± 77.2<.0001
Male12153202.9 ± 148.64061.0 ± 94.6 
Female20844624.8 ± 154.56438.7 ± 103.3 
Circulating Plasma Adiponectin, n (%)§   <.0001
 Quartile 1849221 (38.7%)628 (23.0%) 
 Quartile 2840161 (28.2%)679 (24.9%) 
 Quartile 3831118 (20.7%)713 (26.1%) 
 Quartile 477971 (12.4%)708 (26.0%) 
 Total32995712728 
  1. *T-tests were used for continuous variables and Chi-square tests for categorical variables
  2. †Satterthwaite test for unequal variances
  3. ‡For men the sex-specific leptin quartiles were defined as < 4.5 ng/mL (Q1), ≥4.5 to < 7.8 ng/mL (Q2), ≥7.8 to < 13.3 ng/mL (Q3), ≥13.3 ng/mL (Q4). For women, the leptin quartiles were defined as < 21.85 ng/mL (Q1), ≥21.85 to < 32.9 ng/mL (Q2), ≥32.9 to < 46.3 ng/mL (Q3), ≥46.3 ng/mL (Q4)
  4. §For men the sex-specific adiponectin quartiles were defined as < 2066.200 ng/mL (Q1), ≥2066.200 to < 3118.041 ng/mL (Q2), ≥3118.041 to < 4892.741 ng/mL (Q3), ≥4892.741 ng/mL (Q4). For women the adiponectin quartiles were defined as < 3327.154 ng/mL (Q1), ≥3327.154 to < 5080.525 ng/mL (Q2), ≥5080.525 to < 7606.885 ng/mL (Q3), ≥7606.885 ng/mL (Q4)