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Table 2 Distribution of traditional risk factors among survey participants with diabetes attending five district hospitals in Rwanda in 2015–2016 by rural/urban residence status

From: Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of diabetes mellitus in rural Rwanda: time to contextualize the interventions? A cross-sectional study

Variables Rural Urban P value
N % N %
Physical activity intensity*
 Vigorous 126 40.0 28 17.8 < 0.001
 Moderate 49 15.6 25 15.9
 Low 140 44.4 104 66.3
Reported family history of diabetes
 Positive 47 14.9 45 28.7 0.001
BMI (kg/m2)
  < 18.5 50 15.9 5 3.2 < 0.001
 19–24.9 178 56.5 67 42.7
 25–29.9 62 19.7 54 34.4
  ≥ 30 25 7.9 31 19.7
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
  < 120 118 37.8 34 21.7 0.001
 120–139 122 39.1 65 41.4
 140–159 45 14.4 34 21.7
  ≥ 160 27 8.7 24 15.3
Diastolic blood pressure
  < 80 197 63.1 69 43.9 0.001
 80–89 67 21.5 50 31.8
 90–99 33 10.6 25 15.9
  ≥ 100 15 4.8 13 8.3
Tobacco use
 Never smoked 249 79.0 105 66.9 0.01
 Ever smoked 66 21.0 52 33.1
Alcohol consumption
 Never drank alcohol 156 49.5 61 38.9 0.087
 Stopped over 12 months ago 104 33.0 64 40.8
 Stopped less than 12 months ago 23 7.3 9 5.7
 Current alcohol consumer 32 10.2 23 14.6
Waist circumference
 Women (> 80 cm) 90 45.5 73 75.3 < 0.001
 Men (> 94 cm) 7 6.0 18 30.0 < 0.001
  1. N number of participants *Vigorous physical activity: activities that cause a large increase in breathing or heart rate (example, digging), moderate physical activity: activities that cause a small increase in breathing or heart rate (example, carrying light loads) for at least 10 min continuously [25], low intensity activity: physical inactivity