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Table 3 Socio-demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, and biochemical factors associated with HOMA-IR1

From: Evaluation of risk factors for insulin resistance: a cross sectional study among employees at a private university in Lebanon

  HOMA-IR categories
  Men (n = 134) Women (n = 152)
Characteristic HOMA-IR < 2.5
N = 71
HOMA-IR ≥2.5)
N = 63
  HOMA-IR < 2.5
N = 104
HOMA-IR ≥2.5)
N = 48
 
  n or mean % or SD n or mean % or SD P-value n or mean % or SD n or mean % or SD P-value
Age (years) 43.9 12.8 43.4 10.5 0.807 39.0 9.0 39.0 11.1 0.978
Medical morbidity
 - No 46 64.8 37 58.7 0.471 75 72.1 29 60.4 0.149
 - Yes 25 35.2 26 41.3   29 27.9 19 39.6  
Smoking
 - No 38 53.5 35 55.6 0.813 76 73.1 33 68.8 0.582
 - Yes 33 46.5 28 44.4   28 26.9 15 31.3  
Alcohol drinking
 - No 47 66.2 42 66.7 0.954 83 79.8 43 89.6 0.137
 - Yes 24 33.8 21 33.3   21 20.2 5 10.4  
PA2 level
 - Low 39 54.9 43 68.3 0.114 67 64.4 34 70.8 0.437
 - Moderate/High 32 45.1 20 31.7   37 35.6 14 29.2  
Marital status
 - Single/ Separated/ Divorced 24 33.8 21 33.3 0.954 32 30.8a 28 58.3a 0.001
 - Married 47 66.2 42 66.7   72 69.2a 20 41.7a  
Education level
 - High school 19 26.8 18 28.6 0.124 10 9.6 10 20.8 0.154
 - Bachelor degree 10 14.1 17 27.0   34 32.7 15 31.3  
 - Graduate 42 59.2 28 44.4   60 57.7 23 47.9  
Income ($)
 - < 2250 20 28.2 24 38.1 0.095 25 24.6 16 33.3 0.467
 - 2250–4000 13 18.3 17 27.0   37 35.6 14 29.2  
 - > 4000 38 53.5 22 34.9   42 40.4 18 37.5  
BMI3 (Kg/m2)
 - Underweight       2 1.9 0 0.0 < 0.001
 - Normal 21 29.6a 4 6.3a < 0.001 69 66.3a 18 37.5a  
 - Overweight 37 52.1 32 50.8   25 24.0 13 27.1  
 - Obese 13 18.3a 27 42.9a   8 7.7a 17 35.4a  
PBF4 25.0 6.5 29.4 6.2 < 0.001 31.4 6.6 38.7 7.5 < 0.001
Waist circumference risky5
 - No 53 74.6a 21 33.3a < 0.001 67 64.4a 11 22.9a < 0.001
 - Yes 18 25.4a 42 66.7a   37 35.6a 37 77.1a  
Sweets or carbonated beverages
 - < 1 beverage/ day 48 67.6 38 60.3 0.380 80 76.9 35 72.9 0.593
 - ≥1 beverage/ day 23 32.4 25 39.7   24 23.1 13 27.1  
Dairy product intake 2.1 1.1 2.3 0.9 0.344 2.2 0.9 2.1 1.1 0.534
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.0 0.5 5.6 1.6 0.003 4.7 0.4 5.1 0.6 < 0.001
Insulin (uIU/ ml) 8.8 1.3 16.3 8.2 < 0.001 8.5 1.6 19.0 13.1 < 0.001
Hypertriglyceridemia
 - Normal TG6 levels 44 62.0 31 49.2 0.137 99 95.2a 30 62.5a < 0.001
 - Hypertriglyceridemia 27 38.0 32 50.8   5 4.8a 18 37.5a  
Cholesterol7
 - Desirable 51 71.8 39 61.9 0.222 69 66.3 26 54.2 0.149
 - High 20 28.2 24 38.1   35 33.7 22 45.8  
HDL8
 - Normal 55 77.5 45 71.4 0.423 87 83.7a 32 66.7a 0.018
 - Low 16 22.5 18 28.6   17 16.3a 16 33.3a  
LDL9
 - Optimal 28 40.0 19 30.6 0.263 39 37.5 12 25.0 0.129
 - Above optimal 42 60.0 43 69.4   65 62.5 36 75.0  
CRP10
 - Low/ moderate 26 36.6 20 31.7 0.553 61 58.7a 17 35.4a 0.008
 - High 45 63.4 43 68.3   43 41.3a 31 64.6a  
  1. 1 Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance - HOMA-IR levels ≥2.5 indicates insulin resistance [43]
  2. 2 Physical activity
  3. 3 Body Mass Index - BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, normal weight 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25–29.9 kg/m2, and obese ≥30 kg/m2 [44]
  4. 4 Percent body fat
  5. 5 Risky waist circumference: > 102 cm in men, > 88 cm in women [44]
  6. 6 Triglycerides – Normal levels: < 150 mg/ dL [45]
  7. 7 Desirable levels: < 200 mg/dL [45]
  8. 8 High Density Lipoprotein – Normal levels: ≥40 mg/ dL, ≥50 mg/ dL [45]
  9. 9 Low Density Lipoprotein – Optimal levels: < 100 mg/dL [45]
  10. 10 C-Reactive Protein – Low/ moderate levels: < 3 mg/L [46]
  11. Columns with superscripts without a common symbol differ, P < 0.05