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Table 2 Socio-demographic, dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric, and biochemical factors associated with dairy intake

From: Evaluation of risk factors for insulin resistance: a cross sectional study among employees at a private university in Lebanon

  Dairy intake quartiles  
Characteristic Quartile 1 (≤1.55 serv/ d)
n = 72
Quartile 2 (1.56–2.15 serv/d)
n = 70
Quartile 3 (2.16–2.73 serv/d)
n = 73
Quartile 4 (≥2.74 serv/ d)
n = 71
 
  n or mean % or SD n or mean % or SD n or mean % or SD n or mean % or SD P-value
Age (years) 42.3 12.3 42.6 12.1 39.9 9.6 40.1 9.5 0.443
Gender
 - Male 32 44.4 36 51.4 36 49.3 30 42.3 0.674
 - Female 40 55.6 34 48.6 37 50.7 41 57.7  
Marital status
 - Single/ Separated/Divorced 26 36.1 26 37.1 18 24.7a 35 49.3a 0.024
 - Married 46 63.9 44 62.9 55 75.3a 36 50.7a  
Education level          
 - High school 17 23.6 14 20.0 12 16.4 14 19.7 0.446
 - Bachelor degree 13 18.1 24 34.3 21 28.8 18 25.4  
 - Graduate 42 58.3 32 45.7 40 54.8 39 54.9  
Income ($)
 - < 2250 17 23.6 23 32.9 18 24.7 27 38.0 0.293
 - 2250–4000 19 26.4 19 27.1 21 28.8 22 31.0  
 - > 4000 36 50.0 28 40.0 34 46.6 22 31.0  
Medical morbidity
 - No 42 58.3 41 58.6 49 67.1 55 77.5 0.053
 - Yes 30 41.7 29 41.4 24 32.9 16 22.5  
PA1 level
 - Low 46 63.9 47 67.1 47 64.4 43 60.6 0.880
 - Moderate/ High 26 36.1 23 32.9 26 35.6 28 39.4  
BMI2 (Kg/m2) 26.1 4.3 28.0a 5.2 25.6a 4.3 27.0 5.2 0.021
PBF3 31.5 8.2 31.8a 8.1 28.4a 7.1 30.8 8.1 0.039
Waist circumference (cm) 94.8 10.6 98.8a 12.0 92.8a 11.6 94.7 12.5 0.019
Calcium (mg) 619.5a 435.2 744.0 415.7 815.4 595.7 887.4a 525.3 0.011
Magnesium (mg) 248.5a 142.0 264.2 140.5 285.6 148.3 319.7a 154.4 0.025
Potassium (mg) 2294.5a 1049.1 2474.7 1143.2 2617.3 1308.5 2890.8a 1288.1 0.026
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.0 0.5 5.2 1.3 5.0 0.5 5.0 1.1 0.363
Insulin (uIU/ ml) 12.1 6.2 12.9 10.0 11.3 7.1 12.0 8.3 0.729
HOMA-IR4
 - Non-insulin resistant 43 59.7 41 58.6 47 64.4 44 62.0 0.897
 - Insulin resistant 29 40.3 29 41.4 26 35.6 27 38.0  
Hypertriglyceridemia
 - Normal TG5 levels 54 75.0 40 57.1a 57 78.1a 53 74.6 0.025
 - Hypertriglyceridemia 18 25.0 30 42.9a 16 21.9a 18 25.4  
Cholesterol6
 - Desirable 44 61.1 40 57.1 51 69.9 50 70.4 0.259
 - High 28 38.9 30 42.9 22 30.1 21 29.6  
HDL7
 - Normal 55 76.4 49 70.0 62 84.9 53 74.6 0.197
 - Low 17 23.6 21 30.0 11 15.1 18 25.4  
LDL8
 - Optimal 25 34.7 19 27.5 29 39.7 25 35.7 0.492
 - Above optimal 47 65.3 50 72.5 44 60.3 45 64.3  
CRP9
 - Low/ moderate 29 40.3 25 35.7 35 47.9 35 49.3 0.309
 - High 43 59.7 45 64.3 38 52.1 36 50.7  
  1. 1 Physical activity
  2. 2 Body Mass Index - BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, normal weight 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25–29.9 kg/m2, and obese ≥30 kg/m2 [44]
  3. 3 Percent body fat
  4. 4 Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance - HOMA-IR levels ≥2.5 indicates insulin resistance [43]
  5. 5 Triglycerides – Normal levels: < 150 mg/ dL [45]
  6. 6 Desirable levels: < 200 mg/dL [45]
  7. 7 High Density Lipoprotein – Normal levels: ≥40 mg/ dL, ≥50 mg/ dL [45]
  8. 8 Low Density Lipoprotein – Optimal levels: < 100 mg/dL [45]
  9. 9 C-Reactive Protein – Low/ moderate levels: < 3 mg/L [46]
  10. Columns with superscripts without a common symbol differ, P < 0.05