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Table 4 Associations between SBP levels with the type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy risk

From: Associations of serum low-density lipoprotein and systolic blood pressure levels with type 2 diabetic patients with and without peripheral neuropathy: systemic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis of observational studies

Subgroup analyses N (%) T2DM with DPN* T2DM without DPN SMD (95% CI) Heterogeneity
Mean + SD Mean + SD P-value** I-squared
Ethnicity Asia 26 134.64 + 18.81 132.26 + 16.55 −2.38 (−3.81 - -0.95) <0.001 85.70
Europe 2 150.27 + 11.45 144.66 + 9.85 −5.61 (−12.66–1.45) 0.03 78.38
America 1 146.00 + 23.00 142.00 + 22.00 −4.00 (−8.35–0.35) NA NA
Study type Case control 6 134.52 + 18.59 133.58 + 17.99 −0.94 (− 5.49–3.61) <0.001 91.33
Cohort 2 148.07 + 21.20 145.00 + 20.10 −3.07 (−6.25–0.11) 0.54 0.00
Cross-sectional 21 135.57 + 18.67 132.51 + 16.43 −3.06 (− 4.55 - -1.57) <0.001 83.99
Total (Random Effect Model) 29 (100) 141.08 + 19.10 138.45 + 18.50 −2.63 (− 4.00 - -1.27) <0.001 84.88
  1. *The negative combined effect suggests that the LDL mean was higher in the non- type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy comparable group i.e. diabetes whereas the positive value would suggest greater LDL mean values in the type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy group
  2. **P-values is calculated LDL mean between the T2DM with and without DPN
  3. All LDL is reported in mmol/L
  4. Abbreviations: N, number; T2DM, type-2 diabetes mellitus; DPN, diabetic peripheral neuropathy; SMD, standardized mean difference; Cl: Confidence interval