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Table 1 Background characteristics of particippants

From: Poor short-term glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes impairs the intestinal mucosal barrier: a prospective, single-center, observational study

  Control groups (n = 33) T2DM (n = 66) Statistics P
Male [n(%)] 19 (57.6) 38 (57.6) 1.000
Age [(Mean ± SD), years] 61.2 ± 9.6 60.9 ± 11.8 t = 0.121 0.904
BMI [(Mean ± SD), Kg/M2] 26.5 ± 5.8 25.1 ± 3.9 t = 1.417 0.160
Smoking [n(%)] 13 (39.4) 16 (24.2) x2 = 2.438 0.118
Hypertension [n(%)] 16 (48.5) 40 (60.6) x2 = 1.316 0.251
Diabetes history [(Mean ± SD), years] NA 6.0 (1–14)
Diabetic complication [n(%)] NA 31 (46.9)
Medications [n(%)]
 Insulin NA 21 (31.8)
 Metformin NA 32 (48.5)
 α-glucosidase inhibitor NA 29 (43.9)
 sulfonylureas NA 9 (13.6)
 glinide NA 5 (7.6)
 DPP-4 inhibitor NA 1 (1.5)
Laboratory data
 HbAlc [M(Q1~Q3), %] 5.2 (4.9~5.6) 9.3 (7.4~11.0) z = −7.340 < 0.001
 GA [M(Q1~Q3), %] 14.1 (13.3~14.8) 23.5 (19.4~28.5) z = −6.751 < 0.001
 Creatinine [M(Q1~Q3), μmol/L] 76 (64.5~83) 65 (54.5~80) z = −1.620 0.105
 GFR [M(Q1~Q3), ml/min] 90.3 (83.7~98.8) 94.9 (78.1~104.1) z = − 0.672 0.502
 hs-CRP [M(Q1~Q3), ng/L] 3 (1.5~6.7) 3.5 (1.2~18.9) z = −0.801 0.423
Index of the intestinal mucosal barrier
 DAO [M(Q1~Q3), u/l] 6.7 (5.4~9.3) 5.9 (4.1~9.6) z = −1.413 0.158
 D-lactic acid [M(Q1~Q3), mg/l] 49.0 (43.1~53.3) 47.0 (37.2~54.8) z = −0.572 0.567
 Endotoxins [M(Q1~Q3), μ/l] 3.2 (1.3~6.0) 12.1 (4.2~22.0) z = −4.315 < 0.001
FPG[(Mean ± SD), mmol/l] 5.4 ± 0.7 9.8 ± 3.6 t = −9.070 < 0.001
  1. HbAlc Glycosylated hemoglobin, GA glycated albumin, GFR Glomerular filtration rate, DAO diamine oxidase, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, FPG:Fasting Plasma Glucose