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Table 1 Maternal characteristics in the first pregnancy (N = 142)

From: Frequency and risk factors for recurrent gestational diabetes mellitus in primiparous women: a case control study

Variables Recurrent GDM
N = 78
Primary GDM
N = 64
Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
p value
Age (years) 30.0 ± 0.3 29.7 ± 0.4 1.05 (0.93–1.17) 0.442
Prepregnancy weight (kg)a 58.2 ± 1.2 58.8 ± 1.3 0.99 (0.95–1.04) 0.736
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2) a 22.8 ± 0.5 22.2 ± 0.4 1.07 (0.94–1.22) 0.320
Gestational weight gain (kg) b 11.7 ± 0.8 12.4 ± 0.6 0.97 (0.88–1.07) 0.510
Educational attainment (years)
 ≤12 7 (9.0) 6 (9.4) 1.02 (0.32–3.23) 0.790
 13–16 54 (69.2) 47 (73.4) Ref
 ≥17 17 (21.8) 11 (17.2) 1.35 (0.57–3.16)
Family history of first-degree diabetes 20 (25.6) 11 (17.2) 1.66 (0.73–3.79) 0.228
Insulin treatment 4 (5.1) 1 (1.6) 3.41 (0.37–31.26) 0.279
Conception by ART 5 (6.4) 2 (3.1) 2.12 (0.40–11.33) 0.378
Delivery by Cesarean Section 32 (41.0) 23 (35.9) 1.24 (0.63–2.45) 0.536
Birth weight (g) 3264 ± 55 3300 ± 47 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.624
Male baby 34 (43.6) 27 (42.2) 1.06 (0.54–2.07) 0.867
Biochemical parameters in first-trimester (weeks) 13.3 ± 0.2 13.3 ± 0.3   
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 4.48 ± 0.05 4.66 ± 0.05 0.38 (0.17–0.88) 0.024*
Uric acid (umol/L) 226 ± 5 214 ± 5 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.108
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.01 ± 0.09 4.86 ± 0.11 1.28 (0.84–1.95) 0.250
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.68 ± 0.09 1.40 ± 0.07 1.94 (1.06–3.54) 0.031*
75-g OGTT in second-trimester (weeks) 26.4 ± 0.3 26.6 ± 0.4   
Fasting (mmol/L) 4.62 ± 0.07 4.51 ± 0.07 1.40 (0.77–2.52) 0.269
1 h (mmol/L) 10.44 ± 0.17 9.82 ± 0.18 1.34 (1.05–1.71) 0.018*
2 h (mmol/L) 8.67 ± 0.17 8.55 ± 0.20 1.05 (0.84–1.31) 0.653
HbA1c (%) c 5.4 ± 0.1 5.3 ± 0.1 3.00 (1.03–8.78) 0.045*
[HbA1c (mmol/mol)] 36 ± 1 34 ± 1 1.11 (1.00–1.22) 0.045*
  1. Variables are presented with mean ± standard error (SE) unless number (percentage)
  2. GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, ART assisted reproductive technology, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin
  3. a Prepregnancy weight and BMI: 32.4% missing;
  4. b Gestational weight gain: 41.5% missing;
  5. c HbA1c: 26.1% missing