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Table 2 Independent associations with all-cause mortality in univariate and multivariate analysis in patients with diabetes foot ulcers

From: Mortality in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: a retrospective study of 513 cases from a single Centre in the Northern Territory of Australia

Parameter Univariate HR Multivariate HR (Model 1) Multivariate HR (Model 2)
Age 1.03*** [1.02,1.04] 1.12** [1.03,1.20] 1.04*** [1.02,1.06]
Ethnicity (Indigenous) 1.45** [1.10,1.92] 0.65 [0.097,4.42]  
Past ulcer 1.43* [1.06,1.92] 2.70 [0.36,20.34]  
Peripheral vascular disease 2.04*** [1.54,2.71] 2.41 [0.47,12.41]  
Retinopathy 1.32 [0.97,1.78] 5.13 [0.54,48.97]  
Macrovascular disease 1.78*** [1.34,2.36] 12.11* [1.65,88.66] 1.36 [0.92,2.01]
Chronic Kidney Disease 1.24*** [1.16,1.33] 1.63* [1.03,2.60] 1.22*** [1.11,1.34]
Blood HbA1c 0.92* [0.85,0.99] 1.24 [0.98,1.5] 1.00 [0.92,1.08]
Blood Haemoglobin 0.99*** [0.98,0.99] 0.95* [0.90,0.99] 0.99 [0.98,1.00]
Serum Albumin 0.97** [0.95,0.99] 1.31* [1.06,1.63] 0.97* [0.94,0.995]
Serum Alkaline Phosphatase 1.004*** [1.002,1.005] 1.007 [0.99,1.02]  
Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio 1.002*** [1.001,1.002] 1.00 [0.999,1.007]  
Non-compliance 2.038** [1.276,3.255] 4.43 [0.33,58.51]  
  1. Hazard Ratio; 95% confidence intervals in brackets; * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001; Model 1 included variables with P < 0.01 in univariate analysis. Model 2 included variables with P < 0.01 in Model 1. Gender, remoteness, diabetes duration, ulcer duration, ulcer site, ulcer area, Wagner Grade, amputation, hypertension, smoking, alcohol or other drug abuse, neuropathy, retinopathy, inflammation markers, lipid levels, gamma-glutamyl trans-peptidase and insulin therapy were not associated with mortality