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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population by random glucose categories

From: Association between random glucose and all-cause mortality: findings from the mortality follow-up of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998

  Random glucose category (in mmol/L)
Characteristic < 4.3 4.3 - < 5.3 5.3 - < 5.8 5.8 - < 6.8 6.8 - < 7.8 7.8 - < 11.1 ≥ 11.1 p value
N 224 3,105 1,510 843 161 93 19 -
Age class (%) < 0.001
 18-39 years 74.6 52.2 34.9 23.7 26.3 14.4 11.8  
 40-49 years 15.2 19.9 18.5 18.7 10.6 14.0 21.8  
 50-59 years 6.5 14.4 20.1 19.9 27.9 23.3 25.1  
 60-69 years 2.2 9.1 15.4 24.1 21.1 28.3 23.8  
 70-79 years 1.5 4.5 11.0 13.6 14.1 20.0 17.5  
Age (years) 33.4 (1.1) 41.1 (0.4) 48.0 (0.6) 51.9 (0.7) 52.1 (1.6) 57.4 (1.8) 56.5 (2.7) < 0.001
Male sex (%) 42.6 45.3 54.0 59.3 60.6 60.2 56.9 < 0.001
Educational level (%) < 0.001
 Low 42.8 43.3 50.8 58.2 55.6 62.8 72.7  
 Medium 42.8 44.3 36.6 30.1 35.0 30.9 16.3  
 High 14.5 12.4 12.6 11.7 9.4 6.3 11.0  
BMI category (%)2 < 0.001a
 < 25 kg/m 64.1 47.5 34.2 26.2 17.7 19.3 n.a.a  
 25- < 30 kg/m2 28.9 36.2 43.5 45.7 50.4 29.1 35.7  
 ≥ 30 kg/m2 6.9 16.2 22.3 28.1 31.9 51.5 64.3  
BMI (kg/m2) 24.1 (0.3) 25.9 (0.1) 27.1 (0.1) 27.9 (0.2) 28.7 (0.4) 30.5 (0.7) 32.6 (1.4) < 0.001
Waist circumference category (%)b < 0.001
 Normal 65.6 50.5 35.5 27.9 22.3 17.0 2.5  
 Moderate 22.6 24.1 27.1 26.7 27.5 21.3 10.0  
 High 11.9 25.4 37.4 45.4 50.2 61.6 87.5  
Waist circumference (cm)c
 Men 88.9 (1.1) 94.4 (0.4) 96.7 (0.4) 99.1 (0.6) 100.1 (1.8) 102.0 (1.5) 109.8 (3.2) < 0.001
 Women 78.4 (1.1) 81.8 (0.4) 86.8 (0.6) 90.0 (0.8) 91.5 (1.8) 99.4 (2.4) 105.9 (3.4) < 0.001
Smoking (%) < 0.001
 Never smoker 48.3 36.9 30.4 28.7 27.4 24.9 30.3  
 Former smoker 12.9 19.4 23.4 25.7 27.5 23.9 20.0  
 Current smoker 38.8 43.7 46.2 45.7 45.1 51.2 49.7  
Alcohol consumption (%)d < 0.001
 No 21.7 18.4 18.2 18.2 16.5 27.9 9.0  
 Moderate 69.8 63.9 59.2 59.7 57.7 49.9 52.4  
 High 8.5 17.7 22.6 22.1 25.7 22.2 38.6  
Physical activity < 2 h/week (%) 72.8 78.9 80.9 83.3 84.6 88.2 96.5 0.003
History of chronic diseases
 Myocardial infarction 0.6 1.2 1.6 3.6 5.2 3.6 3.7 < 0.001
 Stroke 0.4 0.6 1.2 1.0 0.6 6.4 4.0 < 0.001
 Cancer 2.5 2.8 3.2 3.6 3.5 5.7 4.0 0.682
 Hypertension 4.9 14.6 24.2 32.6 35.6 54.0 48.7 < 0.001
 Hyperlipidemia 8.5 17.9 25.7 28.8 33.2 38.6 55.5 < 0.001
  1. Information is given as arithmetic mean (standard error) or percentage. Differences in means or percentages by random glucose categories were assessed by F test or Rao-Scott χ2 test
  2. a no observations in this cell; p value for association excluding random glucose level ≥ 11.1 mmol/L
  3. b normal / moderate / high: < 94 / 94 - < 102 / ≥ 102 cm in men and < 80 / 80 - < 88 / ≥ 88 cm in women
  4. c mean (standard error) is given separately for men and women due to sex-specific differences in waist circumference distribution
  5. d no / moderate / high: 0 / > 0 - < 20 / ≥ 20 g/day in men and 0 / > 0 - < 10 / ≥ 10 g/day in women