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Table 1 Risk estimates and study information from abstracts of original studies on BPA concentration and type 2 diabetes mellitus

From: Bisphenol A exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk: a meta-analysis

Reference Country Type of study Used sample Unit Population (Case / Total) Comparison categories Adjusted OR 95% CI Adjustment in model Quality score
Lang et al. (2008) [9] The United States Cross-sectional Urine ng/mL 136 / 1455 BPA continuous 1.39 1.21–1.60 Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, BMI, waist circumference and urinary creatinine concentrations, 17
Melzer et al. (2010) [10] The United States Cross-sectional Urine ng/mL 277 / 2947 BPA continuous 1.24 1.10–1.40 Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, BMI, waist circumference, and urinary creatinine concentration. 18
Silver et al. (2011) [11] The United States Cross-sectional Urine ng/mL 540 / 4389 BPA continuous 1.08 1.02–1.16 Age, age2, urinary creatinine as natural splines (restricted cubic splines) with 4 degrees of freedom (knots at 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles), BMI, waist circumference, and smoking status. 17
Ning et al. (2011) [12] The United States Cross-sectional Urine ng/mL 1087 / 3423 BPA in quartiles
Q1: ≤0.47, Q2: 0.48–0.81,
Q3: 0.82–1.43, Q4: > 1.43
1.37 1.08−1.74 Age, sex, educational level, family history of diabetes, WC, systolic blood pressure, ln(TG level), ln(hsCRP level), ln(ALT level), estimated glomerular filtration rate, albumin level and total bilirubin level. 15
Shanker & Teppala (2011) [13] The United States Cross-sectional Urine ng/mL 467 / 3967 BPA in quartiles
Q1: < 1.10, Q2: 1.10–2.10,
Q3: 2.11–4.20, Q4: >  4.20
1.68 1.22–2.30 Age (years), gender, race-ethnicity (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Mexican-Americans, others), education categories (below high school, high school, above high school), smoking (never, former, current), alcohol intake (never, former, current), BMI (normal, overweight, obese), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg), urinary creatinine (mg/dl), and total cholesterol (mg/dl). 16
Wang et al. (2011) [14] China Cross-sectional Urine ng/mL 1048 / 3390 BPA in quartiles
Q1: ≤0.47, Q2: 0.48–0.81,
Q3: 0.82–1.43, Q4: > 1.43
1.37 1.06–1.77 Age, sex, BMI, urinary creatinine concentration, smoking, alcohol drinking, education levels, systolic blood pressure, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, TG, hs-CRP, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, and serum ALT and GGT. 17
LaKind et al. (2012) [15] The United States Cross-sectional Urine ng/mL 4823 BPA continuous 0.995 0.982–1.007 Creatinine, age, gender, ethnicity, education, income, smoking, drinking, BMI, waist circumference, hypertension, total cholesteroland family history. 15
Kim & Park (2013) [16] Korea Cross-sectional Urine ng/mL 99 / 1210 BPA in quartiles
Q1: < 1.36, Q2: 1.36–2.14
Q3: 2.15–3.32, Q4: > 3.32
1.71 0.89−3.26 Creatinine, age, sex, BMI, education, smoking, income and place of residence. 17
Sabanayagam et al. (2013) [17] The United States Cross-sectional Urine ng/mL 1108 / 3516 BPA in tertiles
Q1: <  1.3, Q2: 1.3–3.2,
Q3: >  3.2
1.34 1.03–1.73 Age (years), gender (male, female), race-ethnicity (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Mexican Americans, others), education categories (below high school, high school, above high school), smoking (never, former, current), alcohol intake (never, former, current), body mass index (normal, overweight, obese), physical inactivity (absent, present), mean arterial blood pressure (mm of Hg), C-reactive protein and total cholesterol/HDL ratio 13
Casey & Neidell et al. (2013) [18] The United States Cross-sectional Urine ng/mL 487 / 4658 BPA continuous 1.065 0.973–1.166 Age, sex, urinary creatinine concentration, race/ethnicity, income, smoking, BMI, waist circumference, veteran/military status, citizenship status, marital status, household size, pregnancy status, language at subject interview, health insurance coverage, employment status in the prior week, consumption of bottled water in the past 24 h, consumption of alcohol, annual consumption of tuna fish, presence of emotional support in one’s life, being on a diet, using a water treatment device, access to a routine source of health care, vaccinated for Hepatitis A or B, consumption of dietary supplements (vitamins or minerals), and inability to purchase balanced meals on a consistent basis. 16
Sun et al. (2014) [19] The United States (NHS) Case-control Urine μg/L 394 / 787 BPA in quartiles
Q1: < 1.0, Q2: 1.0–1.5,
Q3: 1.5–2.7, Q4: > 2.7
0.98 0.6–1.61 Age, ethnicity, fasting status, time of sample collection, menopausal status, use of hormone replacement therapy (NHSII), urinary creatinine levels, smoking,
postmenopausal hormone use (NHS), oral contraceptive use (NHSII), physical activity, drinking, family history of diabetes, history of hypercholesterolemia or hypertension, Alternative Health Eating Index score, BMI
15
  The United States (NHS II) Case-control Urine μg/L 577 / 1154 BPA in quartiles
Q1: < 1.0, Q2: 1.0–1.5,
Q3: 1.5–2.7, Q4: > 2.7
2.08 1.17−3.69
Ahmadkhaniha et al. (2014) [20] Iran Case-control Urine μg/L 119 / 239 BPA in two groups based on the median (< 0.85 and ≥ 0.85 μg/L) 57.6 21.1−157.05 Age, sex, BMI, hypertension, serum triglyceride level, serum cholesterol level, serum creatinine (smoking and consumption of sugared drinks in plastic bottles or canned food in two past weeks were exclusion criteria) 15
Andra S.S. et al. (2015) [21] The United States Cross-sectional Urine ng/mL 20/ 131 BPA continuous 0.77 0.24–2.04 Age, sex, BMI, fasting status, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity and family history 18
Aekplakorn W et al. (2015) [22] The Thailand Cross-sectional Serum ng/mL 23 / 2558 BPA in quartiles
Q1: < 1.0, Q2: 1.0–2.0,
Q3: 2.0–3.7, Q4: > 3.7
1.88 1.18–2.99 Age, sex, urinary creatinine, race, education, smoking, physical activity, dietary energy intake and survey wave 17
Bi Y. et al. (2016) [23] China prospective Urine ng/mL 241 / 2209 BPA in quartiles 0.78 0.53–1.16 Age, sex, family history of diabetes, BMI (for weighted GRS), and further for smoking status, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, lg (total cholesterol), lg (triglycerides), fasting plasma glucose,and lg (urinary creatinine) for BPA. 16
Shu et al. (2018) [24] China Case-control Serum ng/mL 232 / 464 BPA in tertiles 0.93 0.41–2.13 Age, sex, BMI, exercise, current smoking, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose in oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol . 15