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Table 1 Synthesis of the characteristics of the included studies by level of intervention and PROGRESS factors

From: Quality improvement strategies at primary care level to reduce inequalities in diabetes care: an equity-oriented systematic review

Level of intervention Patient level Provider level Health care systems level Total QI strategies
Total of studies 29 3 26 58
  N % N % N % N %
Sample characteristics
 Age 55.13  - 55.37  - 53.82  - 55.06  -
 Sex, female (%)   64.05   58.69   57.84   60.20
Baseline HgA1c (%; mmol/mol) 8.88; 74 7.0–11.8; 53–105 9.53; 81 8.1–12.05; 31–109 8.51; 70 7.6–10.5; 60–91 8.88; 74 7.0–12.05; 53–109
Progress factors reported at baseline
 Place of residence 29  50 3  5.2 26  44.8 58  -
 Race/ethnicity 26  49.1 3  5.7 24  45.3 53  -
 Occupation 12  54.5  - 10  45.5 22  -
 Gender/sex 24  46.2 3  5.8 25  48.1 52  -
 Religion  -  -  -  -
 Education 26  57.7 1  2.2 18  40.1 45  -
 Socioeconomic status (SES)  -  -  -  -
 Income 20  62.5  - 12  37.5 32  -
 Social capital 10  62.5  -  - 6  37.5 16  -
 Age 28  50.0 3  5.4 25  44.7 56  -
 Disability  -  -  -  -
 Sexual orientation  -  -  -  -
Study characteristics
Year of publication
  2005–2010 11 19 2 3.5 11 19 24 41.4
  2011–2016 18 31 1 1.7 15 25.9 34 58.6
 Study location
  North America 25 86.2 3 100 22 85 47  
  UK 1 3.4  - 1 3.8 2 3.4
  Australia  - 2  - 2 3.4
  Asia 3 10.4  - 1 7.7 4 6.9
Duration of study (months) 10 3–26 4.5 0.25–36 12 6–60 8.9 0.25–60
Average sample size (range) 190 (56–526) 1573 (182–4138) 290 (65–1665) 684 (50–4138)