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Table 2 Study characteristics

From: Understanding adherence-related beliefs about medicine amongst patients of South Asian origin with diabetes and cardiovascular disease patients: a qualitative synthesis

References Aim of the paper Country Sample characteristics Quality method and analysis used Quality check
    [1] Number   
[2] Disease
[3] M/F
Bissell et al., 2004 [18] To explore barriers to accomplish a re-framed model of health care in English- speaking patients of Pakistani origin with type 2 diabetes. UK [1] Twenty one patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently reviewed by research team.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] Gender not reported
Fagerli et al., 2005 [36] To explore how ethnic minority persons with diabetes experience dietary advice given by Norwegian health workers. Norway [1] Fifteen patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently verified by interpreters.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 4/F = 11
Fleming et al., 2008 [38] To explore the influence of culture on type 2 diabetes self-management in Gujarati Muslim men. Canada [1] Five patients Case study approach. Analysis using theory building and fieldwork. None reported.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 5
Galdas et al., 2010 [33] To explore the cardiac rehabilitation experiences of Punjabi Sikh patients post myocardial infarction. Canada [1] Fifteen patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently reviewed by research team.
[2] Patients diagnosed with CVD
[3] M = 10/F = 5
Keval et al., 2009 [19] To explore South Asian Hindu Guajarati speaking people’s experience of type 2 diabetes. UK [1] Eighteen patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently reviewed by research team.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 10/F = 8
King et al., 2006 [34] To explore the influence of gender on managing coronary artery disease. Canada [1] Eighteen patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently verified by interpreters.
[2] Patients diagnosed with CVD
[3] M = 10/F = 8
Lawton et al., 2005 [20] To explore British Pakistani and British Indian patients’ perceptions and experiences of taking oral hypoglycaemic agents. UK [1] Thirty two patients (fifteen South Asian) In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently reviewed by authors.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 4/F = 11
Lawton et al., 2005 [21] To explore Pakistani and Indian patients’ experiences of, and views about, diabetes services. UK [1] Thirty two patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently verified by research team in addition software for qualitative data analysis was used.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 15/F = 17
Lawton et al., 2006 [22] To explore patients’ perceptions and experiences of under-taking physical activity amongst people of Pakistani and Indian origin with type 2 diabetes. UK [1] Thirty two patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently verified by research team and interpreters.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 17/F = 15
Lawton et al., 2007 [23] To explore patients’ perceptions and understanding of disease causation. UK [1] Thirty two patients (fifteen South Asian) In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts independently were verified by authors.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 4/F = 11
Lewis 2007 [24] To examine the lived experience and cultural illness explanations of a sample of British Indian diabetic patients living with leg and foot ulcers. UK [1] Sixteen patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using Greens’ Framework used to code data. (framework not explained). None reported.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] Gender not reported
Meetoo 2004 [25] To examine the dietary pattern of self-care for a group of Asian and Caucasian diabetes patients. UK [1] Twenty five patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently reviewed by research team.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 8/F = 17
Meetoo 2005 [26] To explore the Explanatory models of diabetes by a group of Asian and Caucasian patients. UK [1] Twenty five patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently reviewed by research team.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 8/F = 17
Oliffe et al., 2010 [35] To describe the connections between masculinities and diet among senior Punjabi Sikh Canadian immigrant men. Canada [1] Eighteen patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were verified by interpreters and NVivo software was used.
[2] Patients diagnosed with CVD
[3] M = 18
Rafique et al., 2006 [37] To assess the needs, awareness and barriers to diabetes education or self-management in diabetic patients. Pakistan [1] Twenty seven patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. None reported.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 11/F = 16
Rhodes et al., 2003 [27] To examine the experience of diabetes and local services in Bangladeshi diabetic patients. Canada [1] Eighteen patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently verified between authors. Member checking was undertaken with authors checking codes.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] Gender not reported
Rhodes et al., 2003 [28] To examine access from the point of view of Bangladeshi diabetic patients. UK [1] Twelve patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using text detective software package. None reported.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
Singh et al., 2012 [29] To explore experiences of UK based South Asian and White patients with diabetes. UK [1] Twelve patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using phenomenology Transcripts were independently verified by authors.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 6/F = 6
Stack et al., 2008 [30] To explore perceptions towards multiple medicines expressed by people managing co-morbidities. UK [1] Three patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently verified by authors.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes & CVD
[3] Gender not reported
Stone et al., 2005 [31] To explore the experience and attitudes of primary care patients with diabetes living in UK. UK [1] Fifteen patients In depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently verified between two researchers.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 6/F = 9
Wilkinson et al., 2012 [32] To explore renal complications of diabetes from the patients’ perspective. UK [1] Twenty five patients In-depth semi-structured interviews, analysis using grounded theory. Transcripts were independently verified between authors. NVivo software used to code data.
[2] Patients diagnosed with diabetes
[3] M = 16/F = 9
  1. For studies where patients from multiple ethnicities were included the sample characteristics column only includes data relevant to the South Asian patients studied. Where it was not possible to identify which patients were of South Asian origin such papers were excluded from the review