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Table 1 Characteristics in men and women

From: Salivary cortisol differs with age and sex and shows inverse associations with WHR in Swedish women: a cross-sectional study

  Women Men  
Characteristics m.v. m sd
(q1–q3)
m.v. m sd
(q1–q3)
p-value
  n = 838 n = 833  
Age, years 0 48 12 0 48 12 0.875
Fasting p-glucose, mmol L-1 0 5.3 1.1 0 5.5 1.1 0.001
2 h p-glucose, mmol L-1 33 5.8 2.1 32 5.5 2.2 0.017
Systolic BP, mm Hg 0 121 14 0 125 14 <0.001
Diastolic BP, mm Hg 0 69 9 0 72 9 <0.001
Waist circumference, cm 0 85 12 0 95 12 <0.001
Hip circumference, cm 0 102 9 0 100 9 <0.001
WHR (waist-hip-ratio) 0 0.83 0.06 0 0.94 0.06 <0.001
BMI, kg m-2 1 26.8 4.5 0 26.9 4.6 0.442
Morning cortsiol, mmol L-1, all 0 12.5 (9.0–18.0) 0 11.1 (8.0–16.0) <0.001
Morning cortsiol, <50 years 0 12.4 (9.0–18.0) 0 10.5 (7.0–15.0) <0.001
Morning cortsiol, ≥ 50 years 0 12.5 (9.0–18.0) 0 12.1 (8.0–18.0) 0.491
Evening cortsiol, mmol L-1, all 0 2.3 (2.0–3.0) 0 2.2 (2.0–3.0) 0.132
Evening cortsiol, <50 years 0 2.2 (2.0–3.0) 0 2.1 (1.0–3.0) 0.386
Evening cortsiol, ≥ 50 years 0 2.7 (2.0–3.0) 0 2.5 (2.0–3.0) 0.183
Δ-cortisol, mmol L-1, all 0 5.3 (3.5–9.0) 0 5.0 (3.3–8.0) 0.086
Δ-cortisol, <50 years 0 5.8 (3.7–9.5) 0 5.1 (3.3–8.5) 0.004
Δ-cortisol, ≥ 50 years 0 4.6 (3.0–8.0) 0 4.8 (3.0–7.7) 0.469
Alcohol consumption, g/weeka 6 22 (0–30) 2 61 (10–77) <0.001b
  m.v. n % m.v. n % p-value
Oral contraceptives - 64 6 - - - -
HRT - 26 5 - - - -
Low physical activity, yes/no 8 50 7 11 67 7 0.094
Daily smoking, yes/no 3 182 21 4 128 15 0.001
Primary school only, yes/no 16 221 37 17 292 44 <0.001
  1. All means (m) are adjusted for differences in age and proportions are standardised for age using the Vara population as standard. M.v. = missing values, P-glucose = plasma glucose, Δ-cortisol = logarithmic morning salivary cortisol – logarithmic evening saliva cortisol, HRT = hormone replacement therapy. For all cortisol variables means and quartiles 1–3 (q1–q3) are geometric (anti-log).
  2. a 10 g alcohol is equivalent to approximately 1 glass of wine or 1 small beer.
  3. b The p-value is accounted for the generally higher physiological acceptance for alcohol in men as compared to women.