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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of subjects who did and did not develope diabetes after 3.5 years of follow-up.

From: Association of liver enzymes with incident type 2 diabetes: A nested case control study in an Iranian population

  Without diabetes (Controls) N = 68 With diabetes (Cases) N = 65 P value
Age (years) 47 ± 13 47 ± 12 -
Male sex (%) 43 43 -
Current and ex smokers (%) 16 28 0.1
Family history of diabetes (%) 11 42 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 26.8 ± 4.6 30.0 ± 4.3 <0.001
Waist (cm) 89 ± 12 97 ± 10 <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mm/Hg) 118± 14 127± 19 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm/Hg) 78± 10 82± 11 0.01
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 4.8± 0.4 5.4± 0.6 <0.001
2-hour plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.5± 1.2 7.1± 1.9 <0.001
Triglycerides* (mmol/l) 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 2.0 (1.4–2.8) 0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.1± 0.3 0.9± 0.2 0.01
Fasting serum insulin* (IU/ml) 12.4 (7.6–17.4) 14.7 (11.1–20.6) 0.01
Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)¶ 2.8± 1.4 3.8± 1.7 <0.001
hs-CRP* (mg/l) 0.7 (0.3–2.0) 1.3 (0.7–2.7) 0.001
γ-glutamyl transferase* (IU/L) 16.9 (13.5–22.9) 21.3 (16.4–33.5) 0.005
Alanin aminotranferase* (IU/L) 15.5 (11.0–20.5) 19.0 (15.0–26.2) 0.01
Aspartate aminotransferase* (IU/L) 19.5 (17.0–24.5) 21.0 (18.0–27.0) 0.2
  1. *For variables with skewed distribution, median with inter-quartile range was presented. For all other continuous variables data were presented as mean ± SD.
  2. ¶ HOMA-IR was calculated as fasting glucose (mmol/l) × insulin (μU/l)/22.5