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Table 3 Stepwise approach to examine zinc/iron ratio as an independent predictor of a new diagnosis of diabetes

From: Is dietary zinc protective for type 2 diabetes? Results from the Australian longitudinal study on women’s health

  Quintile of zinc to iron ratio  
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 P
Number of women 1785 1784 1784 1784 1784  
Zinc/Iron ratio [median(min, max)] 0.69 (0.28, 0.77) 0.84 (0.77, 0.90) 0.95 (0.90, 1.00) 1.06 (1.00, 1.12) 1.21 (1.12, 1.75)  
Number of diabetics 60 72 71 65 65  
Odds ratio       
• Age adjusted 1.00 1.21 (0.85 to 1.71) 1.19 (0.84 to 1.70) 1.09 (0.76 to 1.56) 1.09 (0.76 to 1.56) 0.885
• Age & non-dietary factors adjusted 1.00 0.91 (0.61 to 1.33) 0.91 (0.62 to 1.34) 0.73 (0.49 to 1.09) 0.74 (0.50 to 1.10) 0.073
• Age, non-dietary and dietary factors adjusted 1.00 0.76 (0.50 to 1.16) 0.71 (0.46 to 1.11) 0.54 (0.33 to 0.86) 0.50 (0.30 to 0.83) 0.003
• Age, non-dietary and dietary factors adjusted plus alcohol intake and use of supplements 1.00 0.75 (0.50 to 1.14) 0.72 (0.46 to 1.12) 0.54 (0.34 to 0.87) 0.50 (0.30 to 0.83) 0.004
  1. Non-dietary factors were BMI; smoking status; HRT; exercise group; and history of arthritis, CHD, hypertension, asthma and depression.
  2. Dietary factors were energy-adjusted fiber, iron and fat.