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Table 3 Examination of frequency of contact between patient and health care professional in study interventions

From: Systematic review of communication technologies to promote access and engagement of young people with diabetes into healthcare

Intervention categories and studies Intervention increases contact between patient and health care professional? Results based on comparisons between study participants? Notes
Video Conference
Gelfand, 2003 [33] Unclear NA No adequate discussion
Smith, 2009 [25] Yes NA Increased communication in some participants
Mobile phone
Franklin, 2006 [42] Yes Yes Improved perception of quantity of support but no clinical impact (p > .05)
Franklin, 2008 [38] Yes Yes Found no statistically significant correlation (p > .05)
Rami, 2006 [39] Yes Yes* No adequate discussion
Telephone
Adkins, 2006 [34] Unclear NA No adequate discussion
Howells, 2002 [44] Yes Yes Instructed to increase contact in intervention
Nunn, 2006 [46] Yes Yes Instructed to increase contact in intervention
Novel communication
Cadario, 2007 [48] Yes Yes Intervention design could lead to more clinician contacting patient
Chase, 2003 [40] Yes No Instructed to increase contact in intervention
Corriveau, 2008 [35] Yes Yes** Intervention design could lead to more clinician contacting patient. Fewer face-to-face consultations (2.8 +/- 0.2 (SE) vs. 3.5 +/- 0.1)
D'Annunzio, 2003 [32] Yes NA Intervention design could lead to more clinician contacting patient
Farmer, 2005 [41] Yes Yes Real-time data transfer and design of study may increase communication. No significant influence with contact frequency and change in HbA1c (p = .6)
Gay, 2006 [43] Yes Yes Instructed to increase contact in intervention
Liesenfeld, 2000 [37] Unclear NA Descriptive statistics only. No adequate discussion
Malasanos, 2005 [26] Unclear NA No formal presentation of results
Marrero, 1995 [45] Yes Yes Intervention design could lead to more clinician contacting patient. No significant relationship with communication
Rosenflack, 1993 [47] Yes Yes† Intervention 338 [255-490]. Comparison A 231 [160-350] (p < .007). Comparison B 96 [50-150] (p < .0001) ‡
Web-based
Gerber, 2007 [36] Yes NA Increased contact during initial stages of research then decline
  1. * Comparison between low and high message senders (+/-50%); ** Comparison between rural and urban patient visits;
  2. † 'Time consumption' compared between intervention and 2 control groups; ‡ Value based on sum of minutes per patient per year