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Basic and Clinical Endocrinology

Section edited by Amar Agha

This section concerns disorders of the pituitary axis and related organs and tissues; incuding specific disorders of the thyroid, adrenals, gonads etc. Articles concerning prevention, diagnosis and management, as well as related molecular genetics, and pathophysiology are considered within this section.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Intravenous glucocorticoids (ivGC) have been recommended as a first-line treatment of moderate-to-severe and active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). However, not all patients are responsive to ivGC. Th...

    Authors: Yang Wang, Shuo Zhang, Yidan Zhang, Xingtong Liu, Hao Gu, Sisi Zhong, Yazhuo Huang, Sijie Fang, Jing Sun, Huifang Zhou and Xianqun Fan

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:13

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  2. Content type: Research article

    The adverse effects of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in adults (AGHD) on metabolism and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can be improved with GH substitution. This investigation aimed to design a ...

    Authors: Peter H. Kann, Simona Bergmann, Martin Bidlingmaier, Christina Dimopoulou, Birgitte T. Pedersen, Günter K. Stalla, Matthias M. Weber and Stefanie Meckes-Ferber

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:10

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Ultrasensitive assays to measure pre-pubertal gonadotropins levels could help identify patients with Turner syndrome (TS) in mid-childhood, but studies in this field are scarce. The aim of this study was to an...

    Authors: Stela Carpini, Annelise Barreto Carvalho, Sofia Helena Valente de Lemos-Marini, Gil Guerra-Junior and Andréa Trevas Maciel-Guerra

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:8

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a debilitating autoimmune orbital disease that is often a result of Graves’ disease. Dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) is a rare but sight-threatening manifestation of TED with the...

    Authors: Shuo Zhang, Yang Wang, Sisi Zhong, Xingtong Liu, Yazhuo Huang, Sijie Fang, Ai Zhuang, Yinwei Li, Jing Sun, Huifang Zhou and Xianqun Fan

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:7

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  5. Content type: Case report

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) is a rare endocrine complication during pregnancy that is associated with vasopressinase overproduction from the placenta. Although increased vasopressinase is associated w...

    Authors: Tatsuya Kondo, Miwa Nakamura, Sayaka Kitano, Junji Kawashima, Takeshi Matsumura, Takashi Ohba, Munekage Yamaguchi, Hidetaka Katabuchi and Eiichi Araki

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:4

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  6. Content type: Case report

    The approach to acromegalic patients with persistent acromegaly after surgery and inadequate response to first-generation somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) should be strictly tailored. Current options inclu...

    Authors: A. Ciresi, S. Radellini, V. Guarnotta and C. Giordano

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:2

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Vitamin D (VitD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) play important roles in calcium metabolism and skeletal homeostasis. Estimates of the VitD status in several European countries show large variations between them...

    Authors: Luís Raposo, Sandra Martins, Daniela Ferreira, João Tiago Guimarães and Ana Cristina Santos

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:71

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  8. Content type: Case report

    Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a common hip disorder characterized by displacement of the capital femoral epiphysis from the metaphysic through the femoral epiphyseal plate. SCFE usually occurs du...

    Authors: Saori Kadowaki, Tomohiro Hori, Hideki Matsumoto, Kaori Kanda, Michio Ozeki, Yu Shirakami, Norio Kawamoto, Hidenori Ohnishi and Toshiyuki Fukao

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:59

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  9. Content type: Research article

    This study aimed to investigate preoperative somatostatin analogs (SSAs) treatment on the surgical outcome in patients with acromegaly.

    Authors: Lian Duan, Huijuan Zhu, Bing Xing and Feng Gu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:55

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  10. Content type: Case report

    A functional pituitary adenoma can produce multiple anterior-pituitary hormones, such as growth hormone (GH) -producing adenomas (GHoma) with prolactin or thyrotropin stimulating hormone production in the same...

    Authors: Tomoko Takiguchi, Hisashi Koide, Hidekazu Nagano, Akitoshi Nakayama, Masanori Fujimoto, Ai Tamura, Eri Komai, Akina Shiga, Takashi Kono, Seiichiro Higuchi, Ikki Sakuma, Naoko Hashimoto, Sawako Suzuki, Yui Miyabayashi, Norio Ishiwatari, Kentaro Horiguchi…

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:54

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  11. Content type: Study protocol

    dsd-LIFE is a comprehensive cross-sectional clinical outcome study of individuals with disorders/differences of sex development (DSD). This study focuses on various rare genetic conditions characterized by imp...

    Authors: Robert Röhle, Katharina Gehrmann, Maria Szarras-Czapnik, Hedi Claahsen-van der Grinten, Catherine Pienkowski, Claire Bouvattier, Peggy Cohen-Kettenis, Anna Nordenström, Ute Thyen and Birgit Köhler

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:52

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare and severe condition requiring lifelong steroid replacement. During acute illness or stressful events, it is important to appropriately adjust glucocorticoid dose;...

    Authors: L. M Shepherd, A. A Tahrani, C Inman, W Arlt and D. M Carrick-Sen

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:47

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  13. Content type: Case report

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is uncommon among children with an incidence of 1:300,000. This diagnosis is often missed in children in contrast to adults where it is detected at a pre symptomatic stage du...

    Authors: Maulee Hiromi Arambewela, Kamani Danushka Liyanarachchi, Noel P. Somasundaram, Aruna S. Pallewatte and Gamini L. Punchihewa

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:45

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Evidence suggests that endocannabinoid system activation through the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is associated with enhanced liver injury, and CB1 antagonism may be beneficial. The aim of this study was to de...

    Authors: Alison J. Dawson, Eric S. Kilpatrick, Anne-Marie Coady, Abeer M. M. Elshewehy, Youssra Dakroury, Lina Ahmed, Stephen L. Atkin and Thozhukat Sathyapalan

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:41

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Communication is complex in endocrine care, particularly during transition from paediatric to adult services. The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of interventions to support young people to ...

    Authors: J. Downing, H. Gleeson, P.E. Clayton, J.R.E. Davis, P. Dimitri, J. Wales, B. Young and P. Callery

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:33

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Androsterone glucuronide (ADTG) concentrations have been suggested as a marker of the effects of androgens at the target tissue level. As the mechanism for hyperandrogenemia in obese and nonobese polycystic ov...

    Authors: Li-Wei Cho, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Eric S Kilpatrick, Brian G Keevil, Adrian G Miller, Anne M Coady, Lina Ahmed and Stephen L Atkin

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:26

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  17. Content type: Case report

    Congenital combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) is a rare heterogeneous group of conditions. CPHD-type 3 (CPHD3; MIM# 221750) is caused by recessive mutations in LHX3, a LIM-homeodomain transcription fact...

    Authors: Khushnooda Ramzan, Bassam Bin-Abbas, Lolwa Al-Jomaa, Rabab Allam, Mohammed Al-Owain and Faiqa Imtiaz

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:17

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered a critical hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Berberine (BBR) exerts anti-hyperglycemic and anti-dyslipidemic effects and can also ameliorate NA...

    Authors: Li Zhao, Zhen Cang, Honglin Sun, Xiaomin Nie, Ningjian Wang and Yingli Lu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:13

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Vitamin D (D) supplements are indispensable for its world-wide deficiency. Controversy continues on ergocalciferol (D2) and cholecalciferol (D3) relative potency as well as on dosing-schedule and sex role in r...

    Authors: Muhammad M. Hammami and Ahmed Yusuf

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:12

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  20. Content type: Research article

    MST-4 and TRAF-6 are involved in the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. However, whether they participate in the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease (GD) has not yet been reported. Therefore, the pur...

    Authors: Ai Guo, Yan Tan, Chun Liu and Xiaoya Zheng

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:11

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes and neurodevelopment disorders. Both iodine deficiency and excess are associated with SH; however, few data regarding iodine nutrit...

    Authors: Kunling Wang, Jie Zhang, Fengao Li, Wanqi Zhang, Hao Wang, Li Ding, Yaxin Liu, Laixiang Lin, Shuang Zhang and Mei Zhu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:10

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Liraglutide 3 mg was recently approved as an anti-obesity drug. Metformin is weight neutral, yet it could enhance the therapeutic index of GLP-1 agonist. We compared weight-lowering potential of liraglutide 1....

    Authors: Mojca Jensterle, Nika Aleksandra Kravos, Katja Goričar and Andrej Janez

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:5

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  23. Content type: Research article

    To determine the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasonographic malignancy risk features (UMRFs) in follicular lesions (FL) in a population with low risk of malignancy in FL and to compare it with a similar analysis ...

    Authors: Dorota Słowińska-Klencka, Martyna Wojtaszek-Nowicka, Stanisław Sporny, Ewa Woźniak-Oseła, Bożena Popowicz and Mariusz Klencki

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:69

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  24. Content type: Case report

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A recent animal study showed that hepatocyte-specific receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) knockout ...

    Authors: Ayumu Takeno, Masahiro Yamamoto, Masakazu Notsu and Toshitsugu Sugimoto

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:66

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  25. Content type: Case report

    The 46,XY female is characterised by a male karyotype and female phenotype arising due to any interruption in the sexual development pathways in utero. The cause is usually genetic and various genes are implicate...

    Authors: Sunita M. C. De Sousa, Karin S. Kassahn, Liam C. McIntyre, Chan-Eng Chong, Hamish S. Scott and David J. Torpy

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:58

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Subclinical hypothyroidism, commonly caused by Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This disorder is defined as merely having elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TS...

    Authors: Yu Li, Dong-Ning Chen, Jing Cui, Zhong Xin, Guang-Ran Yang, Ming-Jia Niu and Jin-Kui Yang

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:57

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  27. Content type: Research article

    The term “adrenal fatigue” (“AF”) has been used by some doctors, healthcare providers, and the general media to describe an alleged condition caused by chronic exposure to stressful situations. Despite this, “...

    Authors: Flavio A. Cadegiani and Claudio E. Kater

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:48

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:63

  28. Content type: Case report

    As the field of Primary Aldosteronism (PA) becomes ever expanded, diagnosis of PA is increasingly diagnosed by endocrinologists. With increased PA screening, many of the cases are now found in patients with co...

    Authors: A. Tahir, K. McLaughlin and G. Kline

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:43

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  29. Content type: Case report

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) is a rare form of CAH associated with low renin hypertension, hypokalemia, hyperandrogenemia and ambiguous genitalia in ...

    Authors: Pattaranatcha Charnwichai, Patra Yeetong, Kanya Suphapeetiporn, Vichit Supornsilchai, Taninee Sahakitrungruang and Vorasuk Shotelersuk

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:37

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  30. Content type: Research article

    In order to accurately interpret neonatal thyroid function tests (TFTs), it is necessary to have population specific reference intervals (RIs) as there is significant variation across different populations pos...

    Authors: Geoffrey Omuse, Ali Kassim, Francis Kiigu, Syeda Ra’ana Hussain and Mary Limbe

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:23

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:21

  31. Content type: Research article

    Tolvaptan is the only vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of hyponatraemia (HN) secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion...

    Authors: Clare Jamookeeah, Paul Robinson, Karl O’Reilly, Johan Lundberg, Martin Gisby, Michael Ländin, Jakob Skov and David Trueman

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:22

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  32. Content type: Research article

    The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2L3 (UBE2L3) gene is associated with susceptibility to many autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between UBE2L3 gene and autoimmune th...

    Authors: Yu Wang, Yuan-feng Zhu, Qiong Wang, Jing Xu, Ni Yan, Jian Xu, Liang-feng Shi, Shuang-tao He and Jin-an Zhang

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:18

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Many patients with acromegaly do not achieve biochemical control with first-generation somatostatin analogues. A large, multicenter, randomized, Phase III core study demonstrated that pasireotide LAR had signi...

    Authors: Marcello D. Bronstein, Maria Fleseriu, Sebastian Neggers, Annamaria Colao, Michael Sheppard, Feng Gu, Chiung-Chyi Shen, Mônica Gadelha, Andrew J. Farrall, Karina Hermosillo Reséndiz, Matthieu Ruffin, YinMiao Chen and Pamela Freda

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:16

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a higher risk of fractures despite increased bone mineral density (BMD). In experimental studies a potential role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in...

    Authors: Silvija Canecki-Varžić, Ivana Prpić-Križevac and Ines Bilić-Ćurčić

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2016 16:14

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  35. Content type: Case report

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant genetic disorder with an extremely variable phenotype. In childhood NF1 can be associated with optic glioma and central precocious puberty; the lat...

    Authors: Mirjana Kocova, Elena Kochova and Elena Sukarova-Angelovska

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2015 15:82

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Recombinant Growth hormone (rGH) therapy is approved in many countries for treatment of short stature in a number of childhood diagnoses. Despite the increasing body of international literature on rGH use, the...

    Authors: Dalia Al-Abdulrazzaq, Abdullah Al-Taiar, Kholoud Hassan and Iman Al-Basari

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2015 15:76

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare disease. In the present study at the 9th People’s Hospital in Shanghai, China, 42 patients’ ectopic thyroid glands between the neck and maxillofacial region were subjected to a retros...

    Authors: Ting Gu, Boren Jiang, Ningjian Wang, Fangzhen Xia, Lizhen Wang, Aichun Gu, Feng Xu, Yongshun Han, Qin Li and Yingli Lu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2015 15:70

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  38. Content type: Research article

    The nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is prevalent among patients with enterocutaneous fistula and is associated with poor outcomes. The present study aimed to explore the role of enteral nutrition (EN) the...

    Authors: Ranran Li, Jianan Ren, Qin Wu, Gefei Wang, Xiuwen Wu, Jun Chen, Guanwei Li, Zhiwu Hong, Huajian Ren, Yunzhao Zhao and Jieshou Li

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2015 15:69

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  39. Content type: Case report

    Coexisting of Graves’ disease and functioning struma ovarii is a rare condition. Although the histology of struma ovarii predominantly composed of thyrocytes, the majority of the patients did not have thyrotox...

    Authors: Tullaya Sitasuwan, Suchanan Hanamornroongruang, Thavatchai Peerapatdit and Nuntakorn Thongtang

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2015 15:68

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a serious health problem; the number of people with impaired renal function is rapidly rising. Progression of CKD is associated with having a number of complications, i...

    Authors: Saroj Khatiwada, Rajendra KC, Sharad Gautam, Madhab Lamsal and Nirmal Baral

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2015 15:65

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  41. Content type: Case report

    This is the first case report of focal seizure as a manifestation of Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related hypophysitis. IgG4-related hypophysitis is a novel category of hypophysitis. The clinical presentations, im...

    Authors: Kanchana Ngaosuwan, Therdkiat Trongwongsa and Shanop Shuangshoti

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2015 15:64

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is the central transcriptional regulator of hypoxic responses during the progression of pituitary adenomas. Although previous immunohistochemical studies revealed that HIF-...

    Authors: Chenran Zhang, Qiang Qiang, Ying Jiang, Liuhua Hu, Xuehua Ding, Yicheng Lu and Guohan Hu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2015 15:24

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Low-dose combined oral contraceptives (COCs) can interfere with bone mass acquisition during adolescence. This study aimed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in female adoles...

    Authors: Talita Poli Biason, Tamara Beres Lederer Goldberg, Cilmery Suemi Kurokawa, Maria Regina Moretto, Altamir Santos Teixeira and Hélio Rubens de Carvalho Nunes

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2015 15:15

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with obesity and increased cardiovascular (CV) risk markers. In this study our aim was to assess the effects of six months treatment with liraglutide 1.8 mg od on...

    Authors: Hassan Kahal, Ahmed Aburima, Tamas Ungvari, Alan S Rigby, Anne M Coady, Rebecca V Vince, Ramzi A Ajjan, Eric S Kilpatrick, Khalid M Naseem and Stephen L Atkin

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2015 15:14

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  45. Content type: Research article

    The prevailing view that advocates long-term hormonal follow-up of adrenal incidentalomas is currently under debate. The purpose of the present study was to examine all adrenal incidentalomas presented during ...

    Authors: Hannah Yeomans, Jan Calissendorff, Cristina Volpe, Henrik Falhammar and Buster Mannheimer

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2015 15:6

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