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Basic and Clinical Endocrinology

Section edited by Amar Agha

This section concerns disorders of the pituitary axis and related organs and tissues; incuding specific disorders of the thyroid, adrenals, gonads etc. Articles concerning prevention, diagnosis and management, as well as related molecular genetics, and pathophysiology are considered within this section.

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  1. In recent years, the relationship between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and obesity has been widely discussed. However, it is unclear how thyroid hormone concentrations relate to body weight and its impact...

    Authors: Ranran Xu, Fei Huang, Shijie Zhang, Yongman Lv and Qingquan Liu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:58

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Thyrotoxicosis is often caused by destructive thyroiditis (DT) or Graves’ disease (GD), and a prompt and accurate differential diagnosis for thyrotoxicosis is needed as management strategy differs. A meta-anal...

    Authors: Xiaojuan Peng, Shenglan Wu, Caiqun Bie, Huijun Tang, Zhe Xiong and Shaohui Tang

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:56

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Hypothyroidism, one of the prevalent endocrine disorders worldwide, has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, from an asymptomatic condition to myxedema coma. Although the majority of patients with hypo...

    Authors: Chung Gyo Seo, Kyoung Jin Kim, Euyhyun Park, Nam Hoon Kim, Joo Hyung Kim, Hee Young Kim, Sin Gon Kim and Kyeong Jin Kim

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:52

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Ovarian reserve, vital for reproductive function, can be adversely affected by thyroid diseases. Despite alternations of thyroid hormones with ageing, data on interactions between the overtime trend of thyroid...

    Authors: Sara Bahri, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Atieh Amouzgar, Maryam Rahmati, Maryam Tohidi, Maryam Vasheghani and Fereidoun Azizi

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:47

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Some microRNAs are involved in diabetes pathology and some are known to have role in stroke. MiR-503 causes endothelial dysfunction in diabetic patients, predisposing to ischemia. There has been no study evalu...

    Authors: Saba Sheikhbahaei, Danesh Manizheh, Saadatnia Mohammad, Tajaddini Mohamad Hasan, Nazemian Saman, Rafiee Laleh, Motieian Mahsa, Amoushahi Khouzani Sanaz and Haghjooy Javanmard Shaghayegh

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:42

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Early diagnosis and relapse prediction in Graves’ disease influences treatment. We assessed the abilities of four TSH-receptor antibody tests [TRAb] and one cyclic adenosine monophosphate bioassay to predict r...

    Authors: Tristan Struja, Rebecca Jutzi, Noemi Imahorn, Marina Kaeslin, Fabienne Boesiger, Alexander Kutz, Esther Mundwiler, Andreas Huber, Marius Kraenzlin, Beat Mueller, Christian Meier, Luca Bernasconi and Philipp Schuetz

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:38

    Content type: Research article

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  7. In the treatment for hypothyroidism, a historically symptom-orientated approach has given way to reliance on a single biochemical parameter, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).

    Authors: John E. M. Midgley, Anthony D. Toft, Rolf Larisch, Johannes W. Dietrich and Rudolf Hoermann

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:37

    Content type: Debate

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  8. As a member of peroxiredoxin (PRX) family, PRX3 is predominantly located in mitochondria and plays an important role of free radical scavenging. Since a body of evidence demonstrated the involvement of PRX3 in...

    Authors: Hou-Li Liu, Tian-Tian Li, Ai-Qun Yu, Jingmin Li, Xiaoyan Li, Lianqin Li and Tomonori Kaifu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:32

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Irregular menstruation is clinically associated with an increased risk for ovarian cancer and disease-related mortality. This relationship remains poorly understood, and a mechanism explaining it has yet to be...

    Authors: Jiao Jiao, Matthew Sagnelli, Bei Shi, Yuanyuan Fang, Ziqi Shen, Tianyu Tang, Bingying Dong, Da Li and Xiuxia Wang

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:30

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) proteins have an important role in counteracting oxidative stress. Although diabetes and hypothyroidism (HT) are both characterized by oxidative stress, the mechanisms a...

    Authors: Abdullah Al-Khaldi and Samar Sultan

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:19

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Renal hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeos...

    Authors: Tsai-Sung Tai, Yueh-Han Hsu, Jia Ming Chang and Chien-Chin Chen

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:16

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Increased urinary free cortisol in response to the oral administration of dexamethasone is a paradoxical reaction mainly reported in patients with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. Here, we des...

    Authors: Chihiro Sakaguchi, Kenji Ashida, Kenichi Kohashi, Kenji Ohe, Yoichi Fujii, Seiichi Yano, Yayoi Matsuda, Shohei Sakamoto, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Yoshinao Oda, Masatoshi Nomura and Yoshihiro Ogawa

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:13

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a recently novel lipolytic adipokine implicated in regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in many metabolic disorders. In vitro and animal studies suggest that thyroid hormone...

    Authors: Xin-Hua Xiao, Xiao-Yan Qi, Jiao-Yang Li, Yi-Bing Wang, Ya-Di Wang, Zhe-Zhen Liao, Jing Yang, Li Ran, Ge-Bo Wen and Jiang-Hua Liu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:12

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The most frequently used methods of assessing Graves’ orbithopathy (GO) include: Clinical Activity Score (CAS), ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There exis...

    Authors: Piotr Szumowski, Saeid Abdelrazek, Łukasz Żukowski, Małgorzata Mojsak, Monika Sykała, Katarzyna Siewko, Katarzyna Maliszewska, Anna Popławska-Kita and Janusz Myśliwiec

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:10

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Vitamin-D2 (D2) treatment has been associated with a decrease in 25-hydroxy (25(OH)) vitamin-D3 (D3) level, suggesting that D3 treatment would be preferred to raise total 25(OH) vitamin-D (D) level. We postula...

    Authors: Muhammad M. Hammami, Kafa Abuhdeeb, Safa Hammami and Ahmed Yusuf

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2019 19:8

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Growth hormone (GH) is a heterogeneous protein composed of several molecular isoforms, the most abundant ones being the 22 kDa- and 20 kDa-GH. Exercise-induced secretion of GH isoforms has been extensively inv...

    Authors: A. E. Rigamonti, M. Haenelt, M. Bidlingmaier, A. De Col, S. Tamini, G. Tringali, R. De Micheli, L. Abbruzzese, C. R. Goncalves da Cruz, M. Bernardo-Filho, S. G. Cella and A. Sartorio

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:96

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte disturbance amongst hospitalised patients. Both American and European guidelines recommend fluid restriction as first line treatment for SIADH, however differ on se...

    Authors: Kathryn Berkman, Kate Haigh, Ling Li, Jack Lockett, Goce Dimeski, Anthony Russell and Warrick J. Inder

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:93

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Cognitive impairment is commonly observed in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Low levels of vitamin D have been correlated with cognitive impairment in non-HT population. We examined the association o...

    Authors: Jun Xu, Xiang-yun Zhu, Hui Sun, Xiao-qin Xu, Song-ao Xu, Yuan Suo, Li-jun Cao, Qiang Zhou, Hui-jie Yu and Wei-zhong Cao

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:87

    Content type: Research article

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  19. After hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) including androgen replacement or sequential therapy of estrogen and progesterone, The combination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human menopausal gonadotrop...

    Authors: Yinjie Gao, Bingqing Yu, Jiangfeng Mao, Xi Wang, Min Nie and Xueyan Wu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:85

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) results in significant disease burden and early treatment is important for optimal outcomes. Recognition of short stature and growth failure as symptoms of MPS I among pedi...

    Authors: Ana Maria Martins, Kristin Lindstrom, Sandra Obikawa Kyosen, Maria Veronica Munoz-Rojas, Nathan Thibault and Lynda E. Polgreen

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:83

    Content type: Case report

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  21. Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an inherited autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by low levels of potassium and magnesium in the blood, decreased excretion of calcium in the urine, and elevated ...

    Authors: Haiyang Zhou, Xinhuan Liang, Yingfen Qing, Bihui Meng, Jia Zhou, Song Huang, Shurong Lu, Zhenxing Huang, Haiyan Yang, Yan Ma and Zuojie Luo

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:82

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) is an extremely rare and the most severe form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Typical features include disorder of sex development, early-onset adrenal crisis an...

    Authors: Xiu Zhao, Zhe Su, Xia Liu, Jianming Song, Yungen Gan, Pengqiang Wen, Shoulin Li, Li Wang and Lili Pan

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:78

    Content type: Case report

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  23. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is a complex autoimmune thyroid disease, the onset of which is associated with environmental exposures and specific susceptibility genes. Its incidence in females is higher than its inc...

    Authors: Licheng Gong, Beihong Liu, Jing Wang, Hong Pan, Anhui Qi, Siyang Zhang, Jinyi Wu, Ping Yang and Binbin Wang

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:76

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Vitamin D has been known since the twentieth Century for its benefits in bone health. Recent observational studies have demonstrated its benefits in infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and non-communicabl...

    Authors: Elizabeth Kagotho, Geoffrey Omuse, Nancy Okinda and Peter Ojwang

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:70

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulting from steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) is caused by mutations in the CYP11B1 gene. It is the second major form of CAH associated with hypertension and hyp...

    Authors: Xianxian Yuan, Lin Lu, Shi Chen, Jun Jiang, Xiangqing Wang, Zhihui Liu, Huijuan Zhu, Hui Pan and Zhaolin Lu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:68

    Content type: Case report

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  26. Intestinal bacteria influence bone remodeling in rodents, and antibiotic manipulation of the rodent gut microbiota increases bone formation and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss. In theory, these effects ...

    Authors: Kristian H. Mikkelsen, Tina Vilsbøll, Jens J. Holst, Bolette Hartmann, Filip K. Knop and Morten Frost

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:60

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Here we study the effect of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on bone cell precursors, turnover and cytokines involved in the control of bone cell formation and activity.

    Authors: Francesca Sassi, Ilaria Buondonno, Chiara Luppi, Elena Spertino, Emanuela Stratta, Marco Di Stefano, Marco Ravazzoli, Gianluca Isaia, Marina Trento, Pietro Passera, Massimo Porta, Giovanni Carlo Isaia and Patrizia D’Amelio

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:55

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem. Vitamin D supplements are used to improve vitamin D status; however, there are contradictory data related to what doses to give and how often they should be giv...

    Authors: Mahmut Apaydin, Asli Gencay Can, Muhammed Kizilgul, Selvihan Beysel, Seyfullah Kan, Mustafa Caliskan, Taner Demirci, Ozgur Ozcelik, Mustafa Ozbek and Erman Cakal

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:48

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Incidence of dementia is growing rapidly and affects many people worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) might link cognitive decline and dementia, but the reasons for this association remain unclear. Our stu...

    Authors: Chun-Lin Liu, Ming-Yen Lin, Shang-Jyh Hwang, Ching-Kuan Liu, Huei-Lan Lee and Ming-Tsang Wu

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:45

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Testosterone signals through the androgen receptor (AR) and AR knockout mice develop obesity, suggesting a functional association between AR and leptin signaling. Furthermore, physiological blood concentration...

    Authors: Koichi Yabiku, Keiko Nakamoto and Akihiro Tokushige

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:38

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Nivolumab, an anti-programmed cell death-1 monoclonal antibody, has improved the survival of patients with malignant melanoma. Despite its efficacy, nivolumab inconsistently induces thyroid dysfunction as an i...

    Authors: Seiichi Yano, Kenji Ashida, Hiromi Nagata, Kenji Ohe, Naoko Wada, Yukina Takeichi, Yuki Hanada, Yuta Ibayashi, Lixiang Wang, Shohei Sakamoto, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Hiroshi Uchi, Motoaki Shiratsuchi, Masutaka Furue, Masatoshi Nomura and Yoshihiro Ogawa

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:36

    Content type: Research article

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  32. This study aimed to detect changes in hormone levels in the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with hypothyroidism, and identify differences in the pregnancy and abortion rates of ...

    Authors: Jianran Sun, Cancan Hui, Tongjia Xia, Min Xu, Datong Deng, Faming Pan and Youmin Wang

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:30

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Cushing’s syndrome in humans shares many similarities with its counterpart in dogs in terms of etiology (pituitary versus adrenal causes), clinical signs, and pathophysiologic sequelae. In both species, treatm...

    Authors: Daniel K. Langlois, Michele C. Fritz, William D. Schall, N. Bari Olivier, Rebecca C. Smedley, Paul G. Pearson, Marc B. Bailie and Stephen W. Hunt III

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:24

    Content type: Research article

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  34. 11β-Hydroxylase deficiency (11OHD) is a common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that has been shown to result from inactivating CYP11B1 mutations, and pathogenic CYP11B2/CYP11B1 chimeras contribute to a min...

    Authors: Lian Duan, Rufei Shen, Lingyu Song, Yong Liao and Hongting Zheng

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:23

    Content type: Case report

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  35. To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of synbiotic supplementation on hormonal status, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PC...

    Authors: Khadijeh Nasri, Mehri Jamilian, Elham Rahmani, Fereshteh Bahmani, Maryam Tajabadi-Ebrahimi and Zatollah Asemi

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:21

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a potential consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC). GH stimulation testing is required for definitive diagnosis; however, this ...

    Authors: Kirstie Lithgow, Alex Chin, Chantel T. Debert and Gregory A. Kline

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:20

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Thyroid nodules are highly prevalent, but a robust, feasible method for malignancy differentiation has not yet been well documented. This study aimed to establish a practical model for thyroid nodule discrimin...

    Authors: Jia Liu, Dongmei Zheng, Qiang Li, Xulei Tang, Zuojie Luo, Zhongshang Yuan, Ling Gao and Jiajun Zhao

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:17

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Intravenous glucocorticoids (ivGC) have been recommended as a first-line treatment of moderate-to-severe and active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). However, not all patients are responsive to ivGC. Th...

    Authors: Yang Wang, Shuo Zhang, Yidan Zhang, Xingtong Liu, Hao Gu, Sisi Zhong, Yazhuo Huang, Sijie Fang, Jing Sun, Huifang Zhou and Xianqun Fan

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:13

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The adverse effects of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in adults (AGHD) on metabolism and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can be improved with GH substitution. This investigation aimed to design a ...

    Authors: Peter H. Kann, Simona Bergmann, Martin Bidlingmaier, Christina Dimopoulou, Birgitte T. Pedersen, Günter K. Stalla, Matthias M. Weber and Stefanie Meckes-Ferber

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:10

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Ultrasensitive assays to measure pre-pubertal gonadotropins levels could help identify patients with Turner syndrome (TS) in mid-childhood, but studies in this field are scarce. The aim of this study was to an...

    Authors: Stela Carpini, Annelise Barreto Carvalho, Sofia Helena Valente de Lemos-Marini, Gil Guerra-Junior and Andréa Trevas Maciel-Guerra

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:8

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a debilitating autoimmune orbital disease that is often a result of Graves’ disease. Dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) is a rare but sight-threatening manifestation of TED with the...

    Authors: Shuo Zhang, Yang Wang, Sisi Zhong, Xingtong Liu, Yazhuo Huang, Sijie Fang, Ai Zhuang, Yinwei Li, Jing Sun, Huifang Zhou and Xianqun Fan

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:7

    Content type: Case report

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  42. Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) is a rare endocrine complication during pregnancy that is associated with vasopressinase overproduction from the placenta. Although increased vasopressinase is associated w...

    Authors: Tatsuya Kondo, Miwa Nakamura, Sayaka Kitano, Junji Kawashima, Takeshi Matsumura, Takashi Ohba, Munekage Yamaguchi, Hidetaka Katabuchi and Eiichi Araki

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:4

    Content type: Case report

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  43. The approach to acromegalic patients with persistent acromegaly after surgery and inadequate response to first-generation somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) should be strictly tailored. Current options inclu...

    Authors: A. Ciresi, S. Radellini, V. Guarnotta and C. Giordano

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2018 18:2

    Content type: Case report

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  44. Vitamin D (VitD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) play important roles in calcium metabolism and skeletal homeostasis. Estimates of the VitD status in several European countries show large variations between them...

    Authors: Luís Raposo, Sandra Martins, Daniela Ferreira, João Tiago Guimarães and Ana Cristina Santos

    Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017 17:71

    Content type: Research article

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