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Table 4 Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for diabetes by the level of liver enzymes within normal range

From: Serum liver enzymes and diabetes from the Rafsanjan cohort study

Characteristics Crude model Adjusted model 1 Adjusted model 2 Adjusted model 3 Adjusted model 4
OR (95%CI)a OR(95%CI)b OR (95%CI)c OR(95%CI)d OR(95%CI)e
ALT
 Normal Quartile 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Normal Quartile 2 1.36(1.17–1.58) 1.36(1.16–1.60) 1.25(1.07–1.48) 1.26(1.06–1.49) 1.19(1.01–1.42)
 Normal Quartile 3 1.90(1.65–2.18) 1.83(1.58–2.13) 1.64(1.40–1.91) 1.61(1.37–1.89) 1.42(1.20–1.67)
 Normal Quartile 4 2.04(1.78–2.35) 2.25(1.93–2.61) 1.94(1.66–2.26) 1.88(1.60–2.21) 1.61(1.37–1.90)
 Elevated ALT 2.19(1.83–2.62) 3.37(2.78–4.09) 2.86(2.34–3.50) 2.82(2.29–3.46) 2.40(1.94–2.97)
AST
 Normal Quartile 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Normal Quartile 2 0.68(0.59–0.78) 0.62(0.54–0.72) 0.61(0.52–0.71) 0.61(0.52–0.71) 0.59(0.50–0.70)
 Normal Quartile 3 0.81(0.71–0.91) 0.68(0.59–0.78) 0.66(0.57–0.76) 0.67(0.58–0.77) 0.63(0.54–0.73)
 Normal Quartile 4 0.88(0.77–1.00) 0.82(0.71–0.94) 0.56(0.66–0.87) 0.75(0.65–0.87) 0.69(0.59–0.80)
 Elevated AST 1.49(1.15–1.92) 1.51(1.14–2.00) 1.36(1.03–1.81) 1.36(1.02–1.82) 1.28(0.95–1.71)
GGT
 Normal Quartile 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Normal Quartile 2 1.92(1.63–2.26) 1.79(1.51–2.12) 1.63(1.37–1.94) 1.61(1.35–1.93) 1.50(1.25–1.80)
 Normal Quartile 3 2.40(2.04–2.81) 2.27(1.92–2.69) 1.98(1.67–2.35) 1.96(1.64–2.33) 1.75(1.46–2.10)
 Normal Quartile 4 3.57(3.07–4.17) 3.63(3.08–4.27) 3.11(2.63–3.67) 2.99(2.52–3.55) 2.60(2.17–3.11)
 Elevated GGT 4.63(3.89–5.53) 4.34(3.60–5.25) 3.72(3.06–4.50) 3.68(3.01–4.48) 3.10(2.51–3.82)
ALP
 Normal Quartile 1 1 1 1 1 1
 Normal Quartile 2 1.17(1.01–1.37) 1.03(0.88–1.22) 0.99(0.85–1.17) 1.01(0.85–1.19) 0.98(0.83–1.17)
 Normal Quartile 3 1.49(1.28–1.73) 1.20(1.02–1.41) 1.11(0.94–1.30) 1.13(0.96–1.33) 1.09(0.92–1.29)
 Normal Quartile 4 1.97(1.71–2.28) 1.50(1.28–1.74) 1.40(1.20–1.64) 1.39(1.19–1.63) 1.30(1.10–1.54)
 Elevated ALP 2.78(2.34–3.30) 1.96(1.63–2.36) 1.88(1.56–2.27) 1.90(1.56–2.31) 1.76(1.44–2.16)
  1. a The baseline model is stratified on the levels of liver enzymes
  2. b The adjusted model 1 is adjusted for confounding variables including age (continuous variable), gender (male/ female), education years (continuous variable) and wealth status index
  3. C The adjusted model 2 has additional adjustment for confounding variables related to lifestyle (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and opium consumption), body mass index (continuous variable) and physical activity level (continuous variable)
  4. d The adjusted model 3 has additional adjustment for hypertension (yes/no), family history of diabetes (first-degree relatives) (yes/no) and family history of diabetes (second-degree relatives) (yes/no)
  5. e The adjusted model 4 has additional adjustment for cholesterol (continuous variable), triglycerides (continuous variable), LDL cholesterol (continuous variable), HDL cholesterol (continuous variable), use of hepatotoxic drugs (yes/no) and fatty liver (yes/no)