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Table 3 Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for diabetes by the level of liver enzymes

From: Serum liver enzymes and diabetes from the Rafsanjan cohort study

Characteristics Crude model Adjusted model 1 Adjusted model 2 Adjusted model 3 Adjusted model 4
OR (95%CI)a OR(95%CI)b OR (95%CI)c OR(95%CI)d OR(95%CI)e
ALT
 Normal ALT 1 1 1 1 1
 Elevated ALT 1.45(1.24–1.68) 2.19(1.85–2.60) 1.97(1.66–2.33) 1.96(1.64–2.33) 1.81(1.51–2.17)
AST
 Normal AST 1 1 1 1 1
 Elevated AST 1.75(1.37–2.42) 1.92(1.47–2.51) 1.79(1.37–2.34) 1.78(1.35–2.35) 1.75(1.32–2.32)
GGT
 Normal GGT 1 1 1 1 1
 Elevated GGT 2.22(1.94–2.56) 2.13(1.84–2.48) 1.98(1.71–2.31) 1.99(1.70–2.32) 1.77(1.50–2.08)
ALP
 Normal ALP 1 1 1 1 1
 Elevated ALP 2.00(1.74–2.30) 1.65(1.42–1.92) 1.66(1.42–1.94) 1.67(1.42–1.96) 1.60(1.35–1.90)
  1. a The baseline model is stratified on the levels of liver enzymes
  2. b The adjusted model 1 is adjusted for confounding variables including age (continuous variable), gender (male/ female), education years (continuous variable) and wealth status index
  3. C The adjusted model 2 has additional adjustment for confounding variables related to lifestyle (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and opium consumption), body mass index (continuous variable) and physical activity level (continuous variable)
  4. d The adjusted model 3 has additional adjustment for hypertension (yes/no), family history of diabetes (first-degree relatives) (yes/no) and family history of diabetes (second-degree relatives) (yes/no)
  5. e The adjusted model 4 has additional adjustment for cholesterol (continuous variable), triglycerides (continuous variable), LDL cholesterol (continuous variable), HDL cholesterol (continuous variable), use of hepatotoxic drugs (yes/no) and fatty liver (yes/no)