Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic, selected medical and laboratory characteristics of study participants (n = 9895)

From: Serum liver enzymes and diabetes from the Rafsanjan cohort study

Characteristics All (n = 9895) Non-Diabetes (n = 7612) Diabetes (n = 2283) P-Value
Age- years. no. (%)      < 0.001
  35–45 3672(37.11) 3367(44.23) 305(13.36)  
  46–55 3051(30.83) 2327(30.57) 724(31.71)
  ≥ 56 3172(32.06) 1918(25.20) 1254(54.93)
  Mean ± SD 49.92 ± 9.56 48.27 ± 9.24 55.61 ± 8.35  < 0.001
Gender- no. (%)      < 0.001
  Female 5290(53.46) 3899(51.22) 1391(60.93)  
  Male 4605(46.54) 3713(48.78) 892(39.07)
Education-no. (%)      < 0.001
  ≤ 5 years 3476(35.15) 2344(30.81) 1132(49.58)  
  6–12 years 4795(48.48) 3892(51.16) 903(39.55)
  ≥ 13 years 1619(16.37) 1371(18.02) 248(10.86)
Physical activity -no. (%)     < 0.001
  Low 3834(38.75) 2755(36.19) 1079(47.26)  
  Moderate 5034(50.87) 3975(52.22) 1059(46.39)
  Heavy 1027(10.38) 882(11.59) 145(6.35)
  Mean ± SD 36.01 ± 10.00 39.16 ± 6.56 37.56 ± 5.23  < 0.001
BMI- no. (%)      < 0.001
  < 25 2850(28.81) 2416(31.76) 434(19.01)  
  25–29.9 4055(41.00) 3112(40.90) 943(41.31)
  ≥ 30 2986(30.19) 2080(27.34) 906(39.68)
  Mean ± SD 27.81 ± 4.92 27.41 ± 4.82 29.19 ± 4.98  < 0.001
WSI- no. (%)      < 0.001
  Low 2317(23.44) 1720(22.62) 597(26.15)  
  Low-middle 2841(28.74) 2113(27.79) 728(31.89)  
  Middle-high 3966(40.12) 3122(41.06) 844(36.97)  
  High 762(7.71) 648(8.52) 114(4.99)  
Alcohol consumption- no. (%)    < 0.001
  Yes 986(9.98) 841(11.07) 145(6.36)  
  No 8889(90.02) 6755(88.93) 2134(93.64)
Cigarette smoking-no. (%)     < 0.001
  Yes 2533(25.65) 2044(26.91) 489(21.46)  
  No 7342(74.35) 5552(73.09) 1790(78.54)
Opium consumption- no. (%)    0.030
  Yes 2329(23.58) 1830(24.9) 499(21.90)  
  No 7546(76.42) 5766(75.91) 1780(78.10)
Hypertension- no. (%)     < 0.001
  Yes 2235(22.59) 1194(15.69) 1041(45.60)  
  No 7660(77.41) 6418(84.31) 1242(54.40)
Family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives—no. (%)    < 0.001
  Yes 4879(49.31) 3432(45.09) 1447(63.38)  
  No 5016(50.69) 4180(54.91) 836(36.62)  
Family history of diabetes in second-degree relatives—no. (%)   0.971
  Yes 2430(24.56) 1870(24.57) 560(24.53)  
  No 7465(75.44) 5742(75.43) 1723(75.47)  
Fatty liver      < 0.001
  Yes 1010(10.21) 657(8.63) 353(15.46)  
  No 8885(89.79) 6955(91.37) 1930(84.54)  
Hepatitis- no. (%)     0.269
  Yes 28(0.28) 24(0.32) 4(0.18)  
  No 9867(99.72) 7588(99.68) 2279(99.82)  
Use of hepatotoxic drugs     < 0.001
  Yes 2382(24.07) 1274(16.74) 1108(48.53)  
  No 7513(75.93) 6338(83.26) 1175(51.47)  
Cholesterol
  Mean ± SD 198.66 ± 38.07 198.83 ± 36.14 198.11 ± 43.80 0.476
Triglycerides
  Mean ± SD 160.84 ± 74.87 160.18 ± 96.02 199.14 ± 145.78  < 0.001
LDL cholesterol
  Mean ± SD 108.18 ± 30.31 109.59 ± 28.92 103.47 ± 34.04  < 0.001
HDL cholesterol
  Mean ± SD 57.75 ± 10.88 57.95 ± 10.83 57.07 ± 10.98 0.001
FBS
  Mean ± SD 113.28 ± 39.09 99.24 ± 9.13 160.25 ± 59.21  < 0.001
AST—no. (%)
  Elevated 294(2.97) 194(2.55) 100(4.38) 0.001
  Mean ± SD 21.37 ± 9.44 19.55 ± 8.29 20.07 ± 13.43 0.003
ALT—no. (%)
  Elevated 882(8.92) 622(8.17) 260(11.40)  < 0.001
  Mean ± SD 25.82 ± 20.15 20.91 ± 14.50 23.51 ± 17.20  < 0.001
GGT- no. (%)
  Elevated 1010(10.21) 629(8.26) 381(16.71)  < 0.001
  Mean ± SD 35.20 ± 44.93 25.93 ± 23.84 32.88 ± 33.68  < 0.001
ALP- no. (%)
  Elevated 966(9.76) 621(8.16) 345(15.12)  < 0.001
  Mean ± SD 235.02 ± 79.65 220.92 ± 64.96 241.27 ± 69.34  < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, WSI wealth score index, FBS Fasting blood sugar, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, GGT γ-glutamyl transferase