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Table 2 Summary of the included studies

From: Association between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and tooth loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, publication year Country Type of Study Mean/Median of Age Sex Definition of tooth loss Definition of Diabetes Sample Size Adjustment of confounders OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Costa FO, et al., 2013 [37] Brazil Case-control 45 (22–71) Both any tooth loss Based on blood sugar 238    5.1 (1.13–9.30)
Deborah L. et al., 2013 [38] USA Cross-sectional 74.02 (0.05) Both any tooth loss Self-report 379,021   1.68 (1.55–1.82) 1.25 (1.13–1.37)
Sensorn, W. et al., 2012 [17] Thailand Cross-sectional 50.5 (20–86) Both any tooth loss Based on blood sugar 605   1.72 (1.03–2.73)  
Kapp, J. M. et al., 2007 Columbia Cross-sectional 18–99 Both any tooth loss Self-report 155,280   1.64 (1.49–1.80) 1.11 (0.99–1.24)
Yoo, et al. 2019 [15] South Korea Cohort > 18 Both any tooth loss Based on blood sugar 10,215 sex, age, and place of residence, social and economic factors 1.29 (1.23–1.36) 1.34 (1.26–1.43)
Dar-Odeh, et al. 2019 [39] Saudi Arabia. Cross-sectional 31.2 (10.13) Women any tooth loss Self-report 1768   1.04 (1.02–1.07)  
Frias-Bulhosa, et al. 2018 [28] Portugal Case-control 63.8 (12.8) Both any tooth loss Self-report 666   1.65 (0.88–3.14)  
Hastings, et al. 2017 [7] USA Cross-sectional 55.8 (3.5) Male any tooth loss Self-report 275 adjusted for same variables as Model 2 plus dental insurance, arthritis, hypertension, and number of medications. 1.43 (0.87–2.38)  
Rai, et al. 2019 [40] USA Cross-sectional 55.5 (16.01) Both at least tooth loss > = 5 Self-report 1338 CVD, Tobacco use, Age, Gender, Hispanic 1.7 (1.20–2.30) 1.2 (0.80–1.22)
Simila, et al. 2018 [41] Finland Cross-sectional > 46 Women any tooth loss Based on blood sugar 5950   3.4 (1.79–6.44) 2.99 (1.54–5.8)
Joshipura, et al. 2018 [42] USA Cohort 50.4 (6.8) Both at least tooth loss > = 5 Based on blood sugar 1206   1.48 (0.76–2.89)  
Shamala, et al. 2017 [27] Yemen Case-control > 30 Both at least tooth loss > = 5 Self-report 272   4 (2–8.1)  
Oluwagbemigun, et al. 2015 [26] Germany Cohort 51.8 (8.22) Both any tooth loss Self-report 24,313 Age, Sex, BMI, education, occupation, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, use of vitamin and/or mineral supplements, antibiotics, hormone   1.08 (0.81–1.44)
Delgado-Pérez, et al. 2017 [29] Mexico Cross-sectional 50.7 (16.2) Both any tooth loss   60 replacement therapy (women) and non–steroidal anti–inflammatory drugs 3.42 (2.32–5.04) 3.13 (2.09–4.69)
Buysschaert, et al. 2017 [30] Belgium Cross-sectional 62 (15) Both at least tooth loss > = 5 Based on blood sugar 160   1.72 (0.85–3.54)  
Liljestrand, et al. 2015 [43] Finland Cohort 60.8 (8.44) Both at least tooth loss > = 5 Self-report 7629   1.37 (1.02–1.86)  
Kowall, et al. 2015 [44] Germany Cross-sectional 57.3 (10.82) Both any tooth loss Based on blood sugar 3086 age, sex, BMI, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, total cholesterol, HDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides 4.02 (3.01–5.36) 1.05 (0.73–1.49)
Greenblatt, et al. 2016 [20] USA Cohort 18–74 Both at least tooth loss > = 5 Based on blood sugar 15,113 age, Hispanic background, study site/center, nativity status, income, and education, number of dental visits and current health insurance status, alternative healthy eating index, cigarette smoking, and obesity, chronic periodontitis 2.69 (2.45–2.97) 1.18 (0.94–1.49)
De Medeiros, et al. 2021 [45] Brazil Cross-sectional > = 30 Both any tooth loss Based on blood sugar 60,271 Adults   1.11 (1.08–1.14)
Zhang, et al. 2021 [46] USA Cohort > = 30 Both any tooth loss Based on blood sugar 5569 Adults   2.11 (1.46–3.04)
Del Carmen, et al. 2021 [47] Mexico Cross-sectional 41.6 (15.4) Both any tooth loss Based on blood sugar 1640 Community Oral Health Program 3.62 (2.86–4.57)  
Laouali, et al. 2021 [48] France Cross-sectional 70.17 (6.22) Women any tooth loss Self-report 2857 French national health insurance   1.07 (0.97–1.19)