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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and biochemical parameters of the participants (N = 114)

From: Association between serum vitamin A levels and premature ovarian insufficiency: a case–control, cross-sectional survey study

Variables POI group (n = 47) Control group (n = 67) p-Value
Age at enrollment, n (%)
 18–25 years 6 (12.76) 7 (10.45)  
 25–29 years 7 (14.89) 15 (22.38)  
 30–34 years 12 (25.53) 18 (26.86)  
 35–39 years 14 (29.78) 17 (25.37)  
 > 40 years 8 (17.02) 10 (14.93)  
 Mean ± SD 33.30 ± 6.45 32.63 ± 5.87 0.47a
BMI, n (%)
  < 18.5 kg/m2 6 (12.76) 13 (19.40)  
 18.5–23.9 kg/m2 36 (76.60) 45 (67.16)  
 24.0–30 kg/m2 5 (10.64) 9 (13.43)  
 Mean ± SD 21.11 ± 2.25 20.88 ± 2.64 0.63b
Annual household income, n (%)
  < 30,000 RMB yuan 7 (14.89) 1 (1.49)  < 0.01c
 30,000–100,000 RMB yuan 21 (44.68) 10(14.93)  
  > 100,000 RMB yuan 19 (40.42) 56 (83.58)  
Education, n (%)
 Elementary school 13 (27.65) 4 (5.97)  < 0.01c
 High school 15 (31.91) 6 (8.96)  
 College 19 (40.43) 57 (85.07)  
Biochemical parameters
 Mean ± SD (Range)
  FSH (IU/L) 72.32 ± 32.84 (27.86–149.47) 6.82 ± 2.26 (2.25–15.56)  < 0.01a
  LH (IU/L) 39.48 ± 16.25 (14.33–77.56) 4.10 ± 1.51 (1.13–8.08)  < 0.01b
  E2 (pmol/L) 188.61 ± 151.02 (43.31–755.46) 150.20 ± 74.37 (69.11–560.06) 0.37a
  AMH (ng/mL) 0.02 ± 0.02 (0.01–0.08) 3.36 ± 2.37 (0.18–11.28)  < 0.01a
  Vitamin A (µg/L) 728 ± 176 (349–1162) 662 ± 113 (374–943) 0.13b
  TC (mmol/L) 5.20 ± 1.07 (3.86–9.77) 4.31 ± 0.74 (2.76–6.87)  < 0.01b
  Vitamin A/TC 143.14 ± 35.86 (62.95–218.87) 157.56 ± 35.21 (84.04–256.16) 0.04b
  1. Data are expressed as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation; p < 0.05 indicates statistical significance
  2. POI premature ovarian insufficiency, BMI body mass index, SD standard deviation, FSH follicle-stimulating hormone, LH luteinizing hormone, E2 estradiol, AMH anti-Müllerian hormone
  3. aMann-Whitney U-test
  4. bStudent’s t-test for independent samples
  5. cChi-square test