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Table 2 Within- and between-group comparison of the self-management subscale scores before and after the intervention

From: Promoting self-management behaviors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, using digital storytelling: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Variables Digital storytelling   Control   
  Before After   Before After   Between-group comparison
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p-valuew Mean ± SD Mean ±SD p-valuew p-valueb p-valuea
Collaboration With Parents 23.78±5.17 26.06±5.43 <0.001 22.69±5.81 22.36±6.05 0.620 0.423 0.022
Diabetes Care Activities 17.15±6.75 16.78±4.42 0.739 17.78±5.67 18.00±4.98 0.789 0.680 0.058
Diabetes Problem-Solving 14.15±4.71 15.36±5.07 0.155 14.93±3.52 15.12±3.07 0.746 0.445 0.593
Diabetes Communication 24.57±9.22 26.69±9.06 0.015 23.93±6.61 24.54±7.59 0.464 0.749 0.663
Goals 13.21±3.37 15.21±3.07 <0.001 14.78±3.06 15.33±2.21 0.241 0.051 0.356
Total 92.87±21.28 100.12±18.2 0.005 94.15±18.02 95.36±17.05 0.574 0.794 0.527
HbA1c 8.76±2.14 8.75±1.97 0.991 9.97±2.03 9.20±2.31 0.166 0.030 0.419
  1. p-valuew: within-group comparison in each interventional and control group
  2. p-valueb: between-group comparison before the intervention
  3. p-valuea: between-group comparison after the intervention based on ANCOVA test with controlling the effect of age, HbA1c and pre self-management scores