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Table 2 Characteristics of the study participants between high, medium and low adherence of healthy dietary pattern

From: The healthy/unhealthy dietary pattern is associated with resting metabolic rate status among women with overweight/obesity

Adherence of HDP Low Medium High P2 P3,4
n = 132 n = 159 n = 159
Parameters
 Age (years) 36.55 ± 8.851 35.95 ± 8.20 37.04 ± 8.52 0.67 0.34
 Height (cm) 160.15 ± 6.33 b, c 161.19 ± 5.83 a, c 162.53 ± 5.39 a, b 0.02 0.68
 Weight (kg) 79.10 ± 11.38 b, c 79.92 ± 11.01 a, c 83.13 ± 13.86 a, b 0.05 0.39
 BMI 30.98 ± 4.53 30.70 ± 3.70 31.47 ± 4.69 0.46 0.95
RMR parameters
 RMR measure (kcal/day) 1558.4 ± 253.05 1570.8 ± 244.28 1602.4 ± 280.93 0.48 0.43
 RMR normal (kcal/day) 1700.8 ± 142.41 c 1706.1 ± 126.20 1749.4 ± 175.6 a 0.05 0.27
 Deviation normal (%) −8.42 ± 12.98 −7.91 ± 12.23 −8.43 ± 12.96 0.95 0.48
 V.O2 (L/min) 0.22 ± 0.03 0.22 ± 0.03 0.22 ± 0.04 0.43 0.58
 V.CO2 (L/min) 0.19 ± 0.03 0.19 ± 0.03 0.19 ± 0.03 0.83 0.22
 RQ 0.85 ± 0.03 0.85 ± 0.04 0.84 ± 0.04 0.23 0.62
 RMR/kg (kcal/day/kg) 19.78 ± 3.40 19.85 ± 2.81 19.32 ± 3.11 0.44 0.53
 RMR/BSA (kcal/day/m2) 850.76 ± 119.50 855.39 ± 108.58 850.99 ± 116.30 0.95 0.47
Body composition
 Protein (kg) 8.90 ± 0.99 b, c 9.14 ± 1.09 a, c 9.44 ± 1.11 a, b 0.003 0.69
 Minerals (kg) 3.11 ± 0.38 c 3.21 ± 0.40 a, c 3.34 ± 0.41 a, b 0.001 0.25
 Body fat mass (kg) 33.78 ± 8.58 33.21 ± 7.44 35.03 ± 9.82 0.32 0.81
 Fat free mass (kg) 45.42 ± 5.06 b, c 46.65 ± 5.51 a, c 48.25 ± 5.81 a, b 0.002 0.02
 Bone mineral content (kg) 2.58 ± 0.33 b, c 2.65 ± 0.33 a, c 2.76 ± 0.35 a, b 0.001 0.16
 Skeletal muscle mass (kg) 24.87 ± 2.98 b, c 25.60 ± 3.28 a, c 26.57 ± 3.42 a, b 0.001 0.35
 Soft lean mass (kg) 42.83 ± 4.77 b, c 43.68 ± 5.37 a 45.48 ± 5.48 a, b 0.002 0.37
 Body fat percentage (%) 42.15 ± 5.55 41.25 ± 4.93 41.15 ± 6.07 0.39 0.27
 Waist hip ratio 1.87 ± 9.29 0.93 ± 0.04 0.93 ± 0.05 0.37 0.52
 Waist circumference (cm) 97.92 ± 9.40 98.51 ± 9.24 a, c 100.4 ± 11.27 0.18 0.44
 Visceral fat area (cm2) 178.04 ± 173.51 160.90 ± 36.07 166.01 ± 42.83 0.50 0.49
 Visceral fat level 17.53 ± 20.04 15.41 ± 3.26 17.06 ± 13.99 0.55 0.51
Blood parameters
 FBS (mg/dl) 89.18 ± 11.33 86.51 ± 9.23 a 86.84 ± 8.00 0.15 0.12
 T-Chol (mg/dl) 187.26 ± 34.76 181.89 ± 40.71 186.32 ± 33.09 0.60 0.82
 TG (mg/dl) 114.64 ± 55.17 122.45 ± 78.34 123.11 ± 75.11 0.40 0.28
 HDL-C (mg/dl) 46.88 ± 10.00 46.28 ± 10.66 47.26 ± 11.86 0.83 0.32
 LDL-C (mg/dl) 99.00 ± 24.46 92.75 ± 24.23 96.33 ± 24.01 0.58 0.41
 GOT (UI/L) 17.02 ± 5.27 17.67 ± 6.47 18.73 ± 9.54 0.32 0.40
 GPT (UI/L) 18.18 ± 9.39 18.84 ± 11.47 20.38 ± 16.80 0.54 0.90
 hs-CRP (mg/L) 4.65 ± 4.96 4.34 ± 4.78 3.99 ± 4.24 0.67 0.24
  1. HDP Healthy dietary pattern, RMR resting metabolic rate, BMI body mass index, VO2 volume of oxygen, VCO2 volume of carbon dioxide, RQ respiratory quotient, FFM fat-free mass, FBS fasting blood sugar, TG triglyceride, T-chol total cholesterol, HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GOT Aspartate Aminotransferase, GPT Alanine Aminotransferase, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; N = 304
  2. 1 Mean ± SD
  3. 2 P-values are resulted from ANOVA (Analysis of variance)
  4. 3 P-values are resulted from ANCOVA
  5. 4After adjustment for age, FFM, energy intake, and physical activity (METs/d)
  6. a Significant compared with low adherence
  7. b Significant compared with medium adherence
  8. c Significant compared with high adherence