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Table 1 The values of anthropometric and blood variables in study subjects

From: Changes in adipokine levels and metabolic profiles following bariatric surgery

Indices Reference values mean±SD (range) Mean±SD [median (25th and 75th percentile)] P-value
Obese patients in GP practice (n=60) Obese patients going to bariatric surgery (n=30) Control group (n=15)
Before surgery 1 year after surgery
Age (years)
 Total   50.9±10.2 [50.5(43-58)]c 46.9±8.9 [48.5(41-53)]a 48.1±8.9 [49.5(42-54.3)]b 35.8±9.2 [37(28-42)]a,b,c a,b,c p<0.001
 Male   51.8±10.5 [53(43.3-58.8)]a 45.5±6.5 [47(41-5)]b 46.7±6.5 [48(42-53)]c 30±9.72 [27.5(22.5-37.3)]a,b,c a,b,c p<0.001
 Female   49.3±9.6 [47.5(41.5-6)]a 47.7±10.1 [50(40-56)]b 49±10.1 [52(42-57)]c 39.7± 6.9 [40(36-42)]a,b,c a p=0.01
b,c p=0.02
Weight (kg)   105.8±14.5 [104.2(95.0-117.1)]b,d,f 129.1±22.9 [125.0(112.8-142.8)]a,b,c 86.4±18.9 [82.0(73.3-93.3)]a,d,e 70.1±10.5 [69.0(63.0-76.0)]c,e,f a*,b*,c*,d*,f p<0.001
e p=0.001
BMI (kg/m2)
 Total <18.5 – underweight
18.5-24.9 – normal
≥25 – overweight
25.0-29.9 – pre-obese
30.0-34.9 – obese class 1
35.0-39.9 – obese class 2
≥40 – obese class 3
35.9±4.4 [35.2(32.7-38.2)]b,d,f 44.3±5.6 [44.0(40.0-47.0)]a,b,c 29.5±4.6 [28.5(26.0-32.0)]a,d,e 22.9±2.2 [23.0(21.0-24.0)]c,e,f a*,b*,c*,d*,e*,f*
p<0.001
 Male 37.0±4.6 [36.4(33.7-39.9)]a,b,c 44.5±5.3 [44.0(40.0-50.0)]a,d,e 29.9±5.9 [28.0(26.0-35.0)]b,d,f 22.2±2.6 [22.0(19.8-24.5)]c,e,f a,b,c,d,e p<0.001
f p=0.008
 Female 34.0±3.3 [34.1(31.8-36.9)]a,b,c 44.4±5.8 [44.0(40.0-46.0)]a,d,e 29.3±3.9 [30.0(26.0-32.0)]b,d,f 23.3±1.9 [24.0(22.0-24.5)]c,e,f a,b,c,d,e,f p<0.001
hs-CRP (mg/l) <5.0 3.9±4.3 [2.3(0.9-6.4)]b,d 6.0±5.4 [4.0(2.0-6.3)]a,b,c 1.2±0.6 [1.0(1.0-1.0)]a,d 1.3±0.7 [1.0(1.0-1.5)]c a*,c* p<0.001
b*,d* p=0.02
Cholesterol (mmol/l) <5.0 4.6±1.1 [5.6(4.9-6.3)]b 5.1±1.0 [5.1(4.4-5.6)]a 4.5±0.6 [4.6(4.1-4.8)]a,b,c 5.1±1.0 [5.2(4.1-5.2)]c a p=0.004
b p<0.001
c p=0.04
LDL–cholesterol (mmol/l) <3.0 3.5±1.0 [3.4(3.1-4.2)]b 3.4±1.0 [3.1(2.8-4.1)]a 2.6±0.5 [2.7(2.2-2.9)]a,b,c 3.6±0.7 [3.8(2.9-4.1)]c a*,b,c p<0.001
HDL–cholesterol (mmol/l) >1.0 1.4±0.3 [1.4(1.1-1.6)]b,c 1.4±0.7 [1.2(1.1-1.4)]a 1.8±0.4 [1.8(1.5-2.2)]a,b 1.6±0.5 [1.5(1.2-1.8)]c a*,b p<0.001
c p=0.025
Triglycerides (mmol/l) <1.7 1.9±0.2 [1.4(1.1-2.5)]c,d 1.8±0.9 [1.8(1.2-21.3)]a,b 1.1±0.5 [1.0(0.7-1.5)]a,c 1.2±0.7 [0.9(0.8-1.2)]b,d a*,c* p<0.001
b* p=0.005
d* p=0.007
Glucose (mmol/l) 4.1-6.1 5.8±0.9 [5.8(5.2-6.1)]b,d,e 6.7±2.3 [5.9(5.4-6.8)]a,b,c 5.2±1.1 [4.9(4.7-5.3)]a,d 4.8±0.7 [5.0(4.3-5.4)]c,e a,b,c,d,e p<0.001
A1C (%) 4.0-6.0 5.7±0.4 [5.6(5.4-5.8)]b,d,f 6.0±1.3 [5.7(5.5-6.0)]a,b,c 5.3±0.4 [5.2(5.1-5.5)]a,d,e 5.0±0.3 [5.1(4.8-5.2)]c,e,f a, b, c, d*,f* p<0.001
e* p=0.03
A1C (IFCC) (mmol/l) 20.0-42.0 38.3±4.3 [37.7(35.5-39.9)]c,e 42.3±13.0 [39.0 (37.0-42.0)]a,b 34.5±4.7 [33.0(32.0-36.5)]a,c,d 31.1±2.6 [32.0(28.5-33.0)]b,d,e a*,b*,c*,e* p<0.001
d p=0.04
Vitamin D (25-OH) (nmol/l) >75.0 48.8±16.9 [47.9(36.1-58.7)]c 54.2±14.7 [54.1(40.7-63.0)]a,b 67.9±21.6 [69.3(48.6-80.8)]a,c 81.8±75.5 [60.2(40.0-83.5)]b a p =0.006
b,c p<0.001
Vitamin B12 (pmol/l) 145.0-569.0 ND 304.4±108.1 [297.0(234.3-354.5)] 297.8±119.1 [277.0(210.0-387.0)] 337.8±134.4 [327.0(209.5-471.5)] NS
Vitamin B9 (nmol/l) 8.8-60.8 ND 15.3±7.5 [13.7(10.7-20.3)]a 28.9±23.6 [20.4(11.4-36.7)]a 15.1±6.5 [13.1(10.9-16.5)] a* p=0.03
Ferritin (μg/l)
 Male 30.0–400.0 ND 202.3±82.9 [245.1(127.0-262.0)] 192.8±89.5 [176.8(116.8-241.7)] 226.3±86.7 [203.7(157.7-317.7)] NS
 Female 13.0–150.0 ND 110.4±66.6 [84.0(60.8-154.2)] 114.1±89.7 [78.6(34.8-203.2)] 87.1±90.7 [47.9(40.2-153.6)] NS
Fe (μmol/l)
 Male 10.6-28.3 ND 19.1±5.7 [17.8(13.9-25.1)] 22.3±6.6 [20.2(17.3-25.1)] 18.9±3.2 [19.2(15.8-21.7)] NS
 Female 6.6-26.0 ND 16.2±6.0 [15.0(12.6-18.7)] 20.6±9.3 [19.2(15.1-24.1)] 17.7±3.8 [18.5(14.9-20.2)] NS
  1. BMI body mass index, hsCRP C-reactive protein, A1C glycated hemoglobin; LDL-cholesterol low density cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol high density cholesterol, ND not detected, NS not significant; Fe-iron
  2. *Mann Whitney Sum Rank Test