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Table 2 Risk factors of moderate and high diabetes distress (DDS ≥2) among the participants (N = 259)

From: Prevalence and predictors of diabetes distress among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a facility-based cross-sectional study of Bangladesh

Variables Subgroups Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) p value
Age Group < 50 years Referent  
≥50 years 1.808 (0.735–4.448) 0.197
Gender Male Referent  
Female 0.926 (0.462–1.860) 0.830
Residence Urban Referent  
Rural 1.940 (1.003–3.752) 0.049
Income Category (in BDT) < 20,000 Referent  
20,000 to < 40,000 0.965 (0.483–1.927) 0.920
40,000 and Above 2.199 (0.846–5.718) 0.106
Education Category Up to Secondary Referent  
≥Higher Secondary 1.042 (0.484–2.242) 0.917
Current Smoker No Referent  
Yes 0.318 (0.100–1.010) 0.052
T2DM in the First-Degree Relative No Referent  
Yes 1.145 (0.595–2.204) 0.686
Age at DM Diagnosis < 40 years Referent  
40 years or above 0.403 (0.164–0.988) 0.047
T2DM Duration 1–5 years Referent  
> 5–10 years 0.701 (0.325–1.512) 0.365
> 10 years 0.240 (0.100–0.577) 0.001
Overweight or Obese No Referent  
Yes 0.561 (0.293–1.074) 0.081
Abdominal Obesity No Referent  
Yes 1.078 (0.552–2.108) 0.902
Glycemic Status HbA1c < 7% Referent  
HbA1c ≥7% 1.071 (0.546–2.101) 0.825
Any Diabetic Complication Absent Referent  
Present 3.125 (1.546–6.320) 0.002
Any Comorbidity Absent Referent  
Present 0.602 (0.301–1.204) 0.151
PDAQ total score   0.993 (0.964–1.022) 0.619
Meets WHO recommendations on physical activity Yes Referent  
No 1.781 (0.921–3.444) 0.086
Injects Insulin No Referent  
Yes 2.687 (1.414–5.105) 0.003
Major Depression Absent Referent  
Present 4.753 (2.466–9.162) < 0001