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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of subjects according to serum 25(OH)D concentrations [mean (SD)], unless stated otherwise

From: Vitamin D deficiency associations with metabolic, bone turnover and adverse general health markers in community free living adults

Characteristic Deficiency
25(OH)D (< 20 ng/ml)
Insufficiency
25(OH) (20-32 ng/ml)
Optimal
25(OH)D (> 32 ng/ml)
P value
Total number of subjects n (%) 286 (44) 234 (36) 128 (20)  
Age (years)* 36.5 (12) 38.7 (12) 41.4 (13.0) 0.002
Age < 50, n (%) 239 (49) 172 (35) 77 (16)  
Age ≥ 50, n (%)* 39 (32.5) 45 (37.5) 36 (30) 0.000
Sex
 Female* 233 (82) 168 (72) 88 (69) 0.004
Do you smoke, n (%)
 Yes, on most or all days 33 (11.8) 31 (13.4) 16 (12.9)  
 Only occasionally 10 (3.6) 10 (4.3) 8 (6.5)  
 No 236 (84.6) 190 (82.3) 100 (80.6) 0.723
Diabetes mellitus*
 Yes 29 (11.4) 26 (13.3) 23 (23.2) 0.015
Hypertension
 Yes 30 (11.8) 30 (15.3) 17 (16.7) 0.380
Angina or heart attack
 Yes 0 (0) 1 (0.5) 0 (0) 0.412
High cholesterol
 Yes 18 (7.1) 25 (12.8) 13 (13.3) 0.082
Sleep disturbance
 Yes 7 (2.8) 7 (3.6) 8 (8.3) 0.058
Past Operation
 Yes 133 (48.4) 88 (38.8) 44 (36.1) 0.017
  1. *P value < 0.05 for between group difference