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Table 3 Treatments and outcomes according to different thyroid function categories among patients with COVID-19

From: Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis is associated with the severity of prognosis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19

  NTF Subclinical hypothyroidism Severe NTIS Mild to moderate NTIS P values
No. of participants 184 17 11 23  
Treatments, %
 Antiviral therapy 162 (88.0) 15 (88.2) 8 (72.7) 20 (87.0) 0.455
 Antibiotic therapy 104 (56.5) 8 (47.1) 9 (81.8) 20 (87.0) 0.010
 Use of corticosteroid 37 (20.1) 4 (23.5) 6 (54.5) 12 (52.2) 0.001
 Intravenous immunoglobin 18 (9.8) 3 (17.6) 5 (45.5) 11 (47.8) < 0.001
 Antihypertensive medicine 56 (30.4) 10 (58.8) 4 (36.4) 9 (39.1) 0.110
 Glucose-lowering medicine 35 (19.0) 1 (5.9) 2 (18.2) 6 (26.1) 0.451
 Lipid-lowering medicine 16 (8.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (9.1) 2 (8.7) 0.686
Illness severity, % 0.005
 Non-severe 45 (24.5) 4 (23.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.005
 Severe 139 (75.5) 13 (76.5) 11 (100.0) 23 (100.0) 0.005
Complications, %
 ARDS 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (9.1) 3 (13.0) 0.009
 Acute cardiac injury 27 (15.3) 4 (23.5) 7 (70.0) 12 (54.5) < 0.001
 Acute kidney injury 5 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 3 (27.3) 5 (21.7) < 0.001
 Shock 3 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 4 (36.4) 11 (47.8) < 0.001
 Hypoalbuminemia (albumin < 30 g/L) 34 (18.6) 4 (23.5) 5 (45.5) 12 (52.2) 0.001
 Coagulopathy 19 (10.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (27.3) 6 (30.0) 0.015
 Length of hospital stay, days 23.4 (0.99) 25.5 (3.23) 24.8 (4.02) 23.1 (2.89) 0.917
  1. Data are means (SE) and are adjusted for age and sex unless otherwise indicated percentages. Abbreviations: COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, NTF Normal thyroid function, NTIS Non-thyroidal illness syndrome, ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome