Skip to main content

Table 1 The characteristics of included studies

From: The recurrence of prolactinoma after withdrawal of dopamine agonist: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First Author Year Region No. patients Drug types and dosage duration (months) age (yr) M/F Pre intervention Tumor detection PRL measurement methods Initial tumor diameter (mm) Initial PRL concentration (ng/ml) Regression of tumor Normalize serum prolactin before withdrawal Prolactinoma recurrence (n) Follow-up (months)
Moriondo, P [11] 1985 Italy 6 BRC:
4 was 10 mg/d
2 was 5 mg/d
24 Mean: 35.33
SEM: 5.07
0/6 No CT RIA NA Mean: 84.5
SEM: 22.7
All All but one 1 16
Cannavo` S [15] 1999 Italy 9 MAC
18 MIC
“A” 24 Mean ± SD (range)
MAC: 28.9 ± 3.2 (18–45)
MIC: 29.6 ± 2.0 (18–62)
NA No MRI IA Mean ± SEM.
MAC: 15.64 ± 3.98
MIC: 6.58 ± 1.96
Mean ± SEM
MAC: 404.09 ± 281.53
MIC: 192.88 ± 112.35
Mean ± SEM (p value)
MAC: 6.9 ± 1.8 mm
(p < 0.001)
MIC: 3.0 ± 0.5 mm
(p < 0.001)
All but three 0 12
Johnston, D G [16] 1984 UK 15 BRC: 7.5-20 mg daily
(9 was 20 mg daily)
Mean: 44.4
SEM: 4.68
Mean: 40.87
SEM: 3.29
8/7 2 with surgery before CT RIA NA Range: 49.1–38,333 All All but one 1 Mean: 3.14
SEM: 0.66
Wu, Z B [17] 2008 China 14 “B” NA Mean: 36
SEM: 12
NA No MRI NA Mean: 45
Range: 20–97
NA All All 0 Mean 18
(at least 3 mo)
Anagnostis, P [18] 2012 Greece 20 MIC
6 MAC
CAB & BRC NA Mean ± SEM
MIC: 32 ± 1
MAC: 41 ± 3
Total: 35 ± 2
ND No NA ICMA Mean ± SEM
MIC: 7.4 ± 1
MAC: 24.1 ± 0.39
Total: 13.7 ± 2
Mean ± SEM
MIC: 112 ± 19
MAC: 263 ± 59
Total: 165 ± 26
Mean ± SEM (mm)
MIC: 1.6 ± 0.6
MAC: 6 ± 4.2
Total: 2.6 ± 0.7
Mean: 12.2
SEM: 2.3
Range: 0.5–44.7
2 (1 MIC and 1 MAC) Mean: 79
SEM: 11
Range: 12–240
V.Q. Passos [19] 2002 Brazil 16 MIC
11 MAC
BRC (mg/week)
median: 5
range: 1.25–25
NA Median 28
Range 15–31
Mean 29.85
SD 8.94
4/23 Yes CT & MRI RIA NA Median: 257
Range: 36–2000
Mean: 417
SD: 473
NA All 0 Median 44;
Range 3–240.
Watanabe, S [20] 2017 Japan 11 CAB (mg/week)
Maximum: 1 (range 0.25–12);
Maintenance:
0.5 (range 0.25–3.0).
60 Mena: 36
range: 16–64
ND No MRI IA Mean: 21
Range: 10–76
Mean: 486.9
Range: 1–23,500
All Unit: ng/ml
Mean: 7.2
Range: 1.0–71.9
0 12
Colao, A [21] 2007 Italy 115 MIC
79 MAC
CAB (mg/week)
mean ± SD (median)
MIC: 1.2 ± 0.5 (1.0)
MAC: 1.2 ± 0.4 (1.0)
mean ± SD (median)
MICs: 43 ± 15 (45)
MACs: 42 ± 13 (36)
Mean ± SD (median)
MIC: 32 ± 11 (29)
MAC: 44 ± 15 (46)
MIC: 12/103
MAC: 36/43
NA MRI NA Mean ± SD (range)
MIC: 6.8 ± 1.5
(3.3–10)
MAC: 17.2 ± 6.2
(10.3–50)
Mean ± SD (range)
MIC: 157.2 ± 50
(67–300)
MAC: 891.67 ± 1341
(197–9715)
Mean ± SD (range)(mm):
MIC: 1.5 ± 2.0 (0–5.6)
MAC: 2.4 ± 3.5 (0–9.5)
Mean ± SD (range)(ng/ml)
MIC: 24.8 ± 17.93 (3–78)
MAC: 31.6 ± 22.3 (10.3–90)
0 Mean ± SD (median)
MIC: 47 ± 29 (48)
MAC: 44 ± 28 (48)
Kharlip, J [22] 2009 USA 31 MIC
11 MAC
“C” Median (range)
MIC: 43 (23–119)
MAC: 56 (26–205)
Median (range)
MIC: 44 (18–68)
MAC: 54 (36–75)
MIC: 5/26
MAC: 7/4
8 MIC & 4 MAC had BRC before MRI NA Median (range)
MIC: 8 (5–10)
MAC: 15 (11–29)
Mean (range)
MIC: 73 (27.2–182.3)
MAC: 310 (103–1122)
Mean (range)(mm)
MIC: 3 (0–9)
MAC: 0 (0–7)
Median (range)(ng/ml)
MIC: 3.6 (0.1–17)
MAC: 1.9 (0.1–6.2)
0 3
Sala, E [12] 2016 Italy 32 CAB (mean ± SD)
(1) Week dosage (mg):
MIC: 0.96 ± 0.41
MAC: 0.97 ± 0.37
(2) Total amount (mg):
MIC: 397.4 ± 274.6
MAC: 313 ± 198.6
Mean ± SD:
MICs: 66 ± 39.6
MACs: 79.2 ± 30
Mean ± SD
MIC: 42.4 ± 9.9
MAC: 70 ± 10.9
NA Yes CT & MRI FIA NA Mean ± SD
MIC: 113.5 ± 54.12
MAC: 258.9 ± 211.3
76% in MIC;
92% in MAC.
mean ± SD (ng/ml)
MIC: 7.3 ± 4.3
MAC: 13.4 ± 14.1
0 12
Muratori, M [13] 1997 Italy 6 “D” 12 Range 25–48 NA NA CT IFMA NA Mean ± SEM
89.83 ± 12.76
All Unit: ng/ml
Mean: 9
SEM: 1.81
1 Mean: 52.83
SEM: 4.53
Dogansen, S C [7] 2016 Turkey 36 “E” Mean ± SD (range)
66.7 ± 30.4 (27–138)
Mean: 32.1
SD: 10.9
Range: 17–66
12/24 No MRI IA Mean: 19.4
SD: 12.4
Range: 6–52
Mean: 2303
SD: 4190
Range: 112–18,500
Disappearance (n, %): 11 (31%)
mean ± SD (range)
Diameter (mm): 3.3 ± 3.1 (0–10)
Percentage of tumor shrinkage (%):
76.5 ± 18.6 (50–100)
mean ± SD (range)
PRL level (ng/ml): 8.4 ± 6.7 (0.4–21)
Percentage reduction (%):
95.1 ± 5.3 (81–99)
0 Mean: 28.6
Range: 7–26
Colao, A [14] 2003 Italy 105 MIC
70 MAC
CAB (mg/week)
Median (range)
MIC: 1 (0.5–3.5)
MAC: 1 (1–2)
Median (range)
MIC: 48 (24–75)
MAC: 42 (24–72)
Median (range)
MIC: 30 (15–66)
MAC: 40 (19–70)
MIC: 11/94
MAC: 33/37
No MRI RIA Mean ± SD.
MIC: 6.9 ± 1.6;
MAC: 17.1 ± 6.4.
Mean ± SD
MIC: 162.2 ± 48.2
MAC: 915.6 ± 1413
Mean ± SD (mm)
MIC: 1.2 ± 1.6
MAC: 2.3 ± 3.3
Mean ± SD (ng/ml)
MICs: 6.0 ± 5.2
MAC: 5.3 ± 3.0
0 At least 24 months
  1. M/F: Male/Female
  2. SD: standard deviation; SEM: standard error of mean
  3. MIC: microprolactinoma; MAC: macroprolactinoma; PRL: prolactin
  4. BRC: bromocriptine; CAB: cabergoline
  5. IA: Immunoassay; RIA: radioimmunoassay; FIA: fluorimmunoassay; ICMA: Immunochemiluminencent assay; IFMA: Immunofluorimetric assay
  6. “A”: 0.25 mg CAB twice a week for 4 weeks. The dose was increased stepwise in 0.5 mg increments until reaching lowest maximally effective and tolerated dose
  7. “B”: Started with BRC 2.5 mg/d. Increased to 7.5 mg/d within 2 or 3 weeks. Increased to 15 mg/d if serum PRL levels were not controlled. Reduced to no more than 5.0 mg/d once prolactin level was within the normal range for 3 months
  8. “C”: CAB (mg/week). Max dose and number of patients: MIC: 0.25 (3), 0.5 (9), 1.0 (17), 1.5 (2), MAC: 0.25 (0), 0.5 (2), 1.0 (7), 1.5 (2); Dose before stopping treatment and number of patients: MIC: 0.25 (13), 0.5 (7), 1.0 (9), 1.5 (1), missing (1), MAC: 0.25 (4), 0.5 (6), 1.0 (1), 1.5 (0)
  9. “D”: Cabergoline. Started with 0.5 mg/week. Further dose increments by 0.25–0.5 mg. The maximum dose was 3 mg/week
  10. “E”: Mean ± SD (range). Unit: mg/week. For CAB: Max dose: 0.8 ± 0.3 (0.5–1.5), Min dose before withdrawal: 0.3 ± 0.1 (0.25–0.5). For BRC: Max dose: 7.4 ± 4.3 (2.5–20), Min dose before withdrawal: 4.2 ± 2.6 (1.25–7.5)