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Table 1 Clinical and biochemical characteristics of the study population. All baseline characteristics are from time of enrolment

From: Low physical activity is associated with impaired endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes and controls after 5 years of follow-up

Characteristic T2DM (n = 51) Controls (n = 53) p-value
Clinical
 Age, years 64.5 ± 9.7 63.2 ± 9.9 0.75
 Male sex, n (%) 30 (59) 28 (53) 0.54
 Diabetes duration at baseline, years 1.9 (1.0;3.3) n/a n/a
24 h blood pressure, mmHg
 Systolic 126 ± 10a 124 ± 11b 0.84
 Diastolic 75 ± 7a 75 ± 7b 0.46
Office blood pressure, mmHg
 Systolic 127 ± 11c 131 ± 15 0.08
 Diastolic 80 ± 8c 83 ± 10 0.03
Heart rate (beats/minute) 65 ± 10d 60 ± 9 0.997
BMI, kg/m2 29.9 ± 4.7 26.3 ± 3.8 < 0.001
Smoking status    0.38
 Current, n (%) 9 (18) 7 (13)  
 Former n (%) 21 (41) 17 (32)  
 Never, n (%) 21 (41) 29 (55)  
Previous CVD, n (%) 11 (22) 6 (11) 0.12
Daytime physical activity (cpm) 27 ± 15 42 ± 19 < 0.001
Biochemical
 HbA1C. mmol/mol 48 ± 8 38 ± 4 n/a
 HbA1C, (%) 6.5 ± 0.7 5.7 ± 0.3 n/a
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.3 ± 0.8 5.7 ± 1.0 < 0.001
 HDL-C, mmol/L 1.4 ± 0.3 1.7 ± 0.6 < 0.001
 LDL-C, mmol/L 2.2 ± 0.7e 3.3 ± 1.0 < 0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.6 (1.0;2.2) 1.2 (0.9;1.6) 0.01
UACR, mg/g 0.46 (0.28;1.04) 0.23 (0.16;0.34) < 0.001
Medication
 Antihypertensive treatment, n (%) 34 (67) 15 (28) < 0.001
Diabetes treatment
 Metformin, n (%) 32 (63) 0 (0) n/a
 Sulfonylureas, n (%) 6 (12) 0 (0) n/a
 GLP-1 agonist, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) n/a
 DPP4 inhibitor, n (%) 2 (4) 0 (0) n/a
 Insulin, n (%) 4 (8) 0 (0) n/a
 Acetylsalicylic acid, n (%) 32 (63) 3 (6) < 0.001
 Statin, n (%) 38 (75) 10 (19) < 0.001
  1. an = 50
  2. bn = 52
  3. cn = 49
  4. dn = 50
  5. en = 49