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Table 4 A comparison between lean participants (normal BMI; n = 50) with and without double diabetes. Data are presented as median and interquartile range (IQ), and as percentages for frequencies. ACEI, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors; ARB, Angiotensin II receptor blockers; BMI: body mass index; eGDR: estimated glucose disposal rate; HbA1c: haemoglobin A1c. *p-value < 0.05

From: The association between overweight/obesity and double diabetes in adults with type 1 diabetes; a cross-sectional study

Selected study cohort characteristics Double diabetes in participant with normal BMI
No (n = 36) Yes (n = 14)
Age at clinic (years) 24.5 (21.0-35.8) 39.0 (23.0-63.8)*
Age at diagnosis (years) 18.0 (11.0-24.5) 17.0 (11.3–51.8)
Diabetes duration (years) 9.0 (2.0–17.0) 9.5 (5.8–18.8)
Female [n (%)] 16 (44) 6 (43)
Body weight (kg) 63.4 (60.3–73.1) 67.3 (59.6–75.0)
BMI (kg/m2) 22.6 (20.1–23.5) 23.2 (22.0-24.6)
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 65.0 (55.0-74.8) 88.5 (70.8-105.3)*
Total Insulin dose (units) 42.0 (30.6–50.3) 41.5 (31.5–58.3)
Insulin dose (unit/kg/day) 0.65 (0.47–0.77) 0.68 (0.50–0.76)
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.8 (3.4–4.9) 4.3 (3.7–5.4)
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 0.9 (0.7–1.3) 1.3 (0.8–1.6)
HDL Cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.6 (1.3–1.9) 1.6 (1.4-2.0)
LDL Cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.0 (1.6–2.5) 2.2 (1.9-3.0)
Hypertension, [n (%)] 0 (0) 4 (29)*
Statins [n (%)] 7 (19) 4 (29)
ACEI/ARB [n (%)] 2 (6) 2 (14)
Metformin [n (%)] 4 (11) 3 (21)
Microalbuminuria, [n (%)] 0 (0) 5 (36)*
eGDR 9.0 (8.6–10.0) 7.1 (5.6–7.4)*