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Table 3 A comparison between individuals with and without double diabetes. An estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) cut-off value of < 8 was applied to identify individuals with Double Diabetes (T1DM combined with insulin resistance). Data are presented as median and interquartile range (IQ), and as percentages for frequencies. Microalbuminuria was defined as urine albumin/creatinine ratio > 3 mg/mmol. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg; taking medications for hypertension; or a documented relevant diagnosis in the electronic Participant record. ACEI, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors; ARB, Angiotensin II receptor blockers; BMI: body mass index; eGDR: estimated glucose disposal rate; HbA1c: haemoglobin A1c. *p-value < 0.05

From: The association between overweight/obesity and double diabetes in adults with type 1 diabetes; a cross-sectional study

Selected study cohort characteristics Double Diabetes
No (n = 45) Yes (n = 62)
Age at clinic (years) 24.0 (21.5–38.5) 37.0 (24.0-51.3)*
Age at diagnosis (years) 18.0 (11.0-25.5) 16.5 (9.0–29.0)
Diabetes duration (years) 9.0 (2.0–17.0) 14.0 (8.8–26.5)*
Female [n (%)] 22 (49) 29 (47)
Body weight (kg) 64.0 (61.1–74.3) 80.5 (73.1–94.2)*
BMI (kg/m2) 22.9 (20.7–24.3) 29.1 (25.3–34.1)*
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 63.0 (53.5–73.0) 72.5 (66.8–87.0)*
Total Insulin dose (units) 42.0 (30.8–54.5) 57.0 (42.3–80.5)*
Insulin dose (unit/kg/day) 0.65 (0.45–0.82) 0.71 (0.56–0.93)*
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.1 (3.5–4.9) 4.4 (3.6-5.0)
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 1.3 (0.9–1.8)*
HDL Cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.6 (1.3–1.9) 1.4 (1.1–1.7)*
LDL Cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.0 (1.6–2.5) 2.5 (1.8–3.2)
Hypertension, [n (%)] 0 (0) 20 (32)*
Statins [n (%)] 10 (22) 23 (37)
ACEI/ARB [n (%)] 3 (7) 19 (31)*
Metformin [n (%)] 5 (11) 9 (15)
Microalbuminuria, [n (%)] 2 (4.4) 15 (24)*
eGDR 8.9 (8.5–10.0) 6.1 (4.5–7.3)*