Skip to main content

Table 2 Parameter changes from baseline to after weight reduction intervention in the two groups

From: The relationship between changes in serum myostatin and adiponectin levels in patients with obesity undergoing a weight loss program

  L group (n = 22) p-value M group (n = 44) p-value
Pre-intervention Post-intervention Pre-intervention Post-intervention
Period days 204.1 ± 18.6    197.6 ± 24.9   
Age years 49.1 ± 14.3    45.7 ± 14.0   
Sex M/F (%) 5 (22.7)/17 (77.3)    14 (31.8)/30 (68.2)   
Diabetes mellitus n (%) 9 (40.9)    7 (15.9)*   
Hypertension n (%) 15 (68.2)    15 (34.1)**   
Dyslipidemia n (%) 5 (22.7)    14 (31.8)   
Body composition
 Weight kg 86.7 (77.9–103.4) 84.9 (75.6–104.2) 0.001 95.6 ± 15.3 84.4 ± 14.6 < 0.001
 BMI kg/m2 35.6 ± 6.7 34.9 ± 6.9 0.002 34.5 (31.2–38.4) 31.7 (28.3–34.8) < 0.001
 %fat % 44.8 ± 6.5 43.9 ± 6.5 0.010 44.9 ± 6.5 41.9 ± 8.8 < 0.001
 %LBM % 53.5 ± 6.2 54.4 ± 6.1 0.006 53.2 ± 6.1 56.4 ± 8.2 < 0.001
 VFA cm3 186.6 ± 47.0 181.6 ± 69.5 0.211 181.3 ± 55.8 146.7 ± 57.6 < 0.001
 SFA cm3 422.3 ± 190.8 402 ± 178.8 0.021 418.0 ± 147.0 361.2 ± 150.5 < 0.001
Exercise capacity and muscle strength
 ATVO2 ml/kg/min 11.0 ± 1.6 11.3 ± 1.9 0.315 11.4 (9.8–12.5) 11.8 (10.8–13.5) 0.002
 PeakVO2 ml/kg/min 17.4 ± 3.3 17.6 ± 3.9 0.618 18.3 (15.7–20.4) 20.5 (17.7–23.9) < 0.001
 Handgrip Kg 26.0 ± 7.1 24.4 ± 7.9 0.293 26.5 ± 9.0 28.1 ± 7.5 0.032
 Leg strength N∙m/kg 1.48 ± 0.27 1.45 ± 0.34 0.837 1.46 ± 0.34 1.56 ± 0.41 < 0.001
 Physical activity kcal/day 99.0 (14.3–274.3) 139.3 (26.8–219.6) 0.575 53.6 (21.4–120.0) 198.0 (107.1–353.6) 0.002
Blood sample
 Fasting GLU mg/dL 104.5 ± 12.4 102.9 ± 16.3 0.586 95.5 (87.0–102.8)** 94.0 (87.3–97.8) 0.047
 HbA1c % 6.0 (5.6–6.3) 6.0 (5.5–6.2) 0.757 5.8 (5.5–6.1) 5.6 (5.4–5.8) < 0.001
 Fasting insulin μU/mL 14.9 (8.5–17.9) 11.4 (8.5–22.0) 0.270 14.3 (9.6–19.7) 12.6 (8.0–20.8) 0.436
 HOMA-IR   3.5 (2.3–4.6) 2.9 (2.0–5.7) 0.372 3.4 (2.0–5.0) 2.9 (1.8–5.0) 0.165
Adiponectin μg/mL 2.86 (1.81–3.81) 3.06 (1.63–4.25) < 0.001 4.15 (3.21–5.35) 4.23 (2.86–6.22) < 0.001
Myostatin pg/mL 2381.1 ± 760.8 2980.0 ± 1088.9 0.003 2377.5 (1751.1–2910.3) 2472.3 (2150.9–3472.3) 0.002
Leptin ng/mL 21.2 (15.4–38.0) 14.2 (9.1–32.6) 0.004 24.1 (15.0–35.7) 15.0 (7.4–22.0) < 0.001
Irisin ng/mL 24.8 (20.1–27.3) 17.5 (16.8–18.7) < 0.001 22.8 (18.8–27.7) 17.6 (16.5–18.8) < 0.001
  1. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median (25, 75% quartile)
  2. L group, < 5% of weight loss; M group, > 5% of weight loss
  3. % of sex, DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are shown as percentages of group members
  4. p-values show comparisons between pre- and post-intervention groups
  5. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 for comparisons between < 5% weight loss and > 5% weight loss groups pre-intervention
  6. %fat, fat mass/weight × 100
  7. %LBM, lean body mass/weight × 100
  8. AT anaerobic threshold, BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, F female, GLU glucose, HbA1c hemoglobin Alc, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, IRI immunoreactive insulin, M male, SFA subcutaneous fat area, VFA visceral fat area, VO2 oxygen consumption