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Table 1 Participants’ clinical characteristics and parameter changes pre- and post-intervention

From: The relationship between changes in serum myostatin and adiponectin levels in patients with obesity undergoing a weight loss program

   Pre-intervention Post-intervention p-value
Age years 46.8 ± 14.0   
Sex M/F (%) 18 (27.3)/48 (72.7)   
Period days 199.8 ± 23.1   
Coronary risk factors
 DM n (%) 16 (24.2)   
 Hypertension n (%) 30 (45.5)   
 Dyslipidemia n (%) 19 (28.8)   
 Alcohol consumption n (%) 29 (43.9)   
 Current smoker n (%) 5 (7.6)   
 Exercise habits n (%) 21 (31.8)   
Body composition
 Weight kg 90.2 (78.5–102.3) 85.1 (73.8–96.4) < 0.001
 BMI kg/m2 34.3 (31.0–38.4) 32.1 (29.0–35.9) < 0.001
 %fat % 45.3 (40.8–49.8) 43.6 (38.5–49.5) < 0.001
 %LBM % 52.9 (48.4–57.5) 55.1 (49.0–59.5) < 0.001
 VFA cm3 183.0 ± 52.7 158.3 ± 63.5 < 0.001
 SFA cm3 419.5 ± 161.5 374.9 ± 160.3 < 0.001
Exercise capacity and muscle strength
 ATVO2 ml/kg/min 11.2 (9.8–12.5) 11.7 (10.4–13.1) 0.002
 Peak VO2 ml/kg/min 18.0 (15.5–20.3) 19.6 (16.2–23.2) < 0.001
 Handgrip kg 26.4 (20.2–30.5) 26.2 (20.9–32.0) 0.214
 Leg strength N∙m/kg 1.47 ± 0.32 1.53 ± 0.39 < 0.001
 Physical activity kcal/day 55.1 (21.4–151.1) 173.9 (90.0–300.6) 0.004
Blood sample
 Fasting GLU mg/dL 97 (89.8–106.3) 95 (88.0–100.5) 0.024
 HbA1c % 5.8 (5.6–6.3) 5.6 (5.4–6.0) < 0.001
 Fasting insulin μU/mL 14.6 (9.2–19.4) 12.1 (8.5–21.9) 0.904
 HOMA-IR   3.4 (2.1–4.8) 2.9 (1.9–5.2) 0.546
 Myostatin μg/mL 2377.5 (1759.9–2926.3) 2502.3 (2209.7–3548.7) < 0.001
 Adiponectin pg/mL 2.87 (1.68–4.24) 4.22 (2.98–6.05) < 0.001
 Leptin ng/mL 22.7 (15.4–36.3) 14.5 (8.0–23.9) < 0.001
 Irisin ng/mL 23.2 (19.5–27.7) 17.6 (16.7–18.7) < 0.001
  1. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median (25, 75% quartile)
  2. %fat, fat mass/weight × 100
  3. %LBM, lean body mass/weight × 100
  4. AT anaerobic threshold, BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, F female, GLU glucose, HbA1c hemoglobin Alc, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, IRI immunoreactive insulin, M male, SFA subcutaneous fat area, VFA visceral fat area, VO2 oxygen consumption