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Table 3 Logistic regression estimates for pre-diabetes/diabetes among adolescents aged 10–19 by socio-demographic characteristics in India, 2016–18

From: Prevalence of pre-diabetes/type 2 diabetes among adolescents (10–19 years) and its association with different measures of overweight/obesity in India: a gendered perspective

Variables Model-1 Model-2 Model-3 Model-4 Model-5
OR(95% CI) OR(95% CI) OR(95% CI) OR(95% CI) OR(95% CI)
Body mass index (BMI)
 Not overweight/obese Ref.   Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Overweight/obese 1.41*(1.08,1.82)   1.4*(1.08,1.82) 1.39*(1.07,1.81) 1.39*(1.07,1.81)
Abdominal obesity
 No Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.
 Yes 1.06 (0.73,1.54) 1.09 (0.75,1.59)   1.07 (0.73,1.55) 1.07 (0.74,1.56)
Triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT)
 Not overweight Ref. Ref. Ref.   Ref.
 Overweight 0.89 (0.64,1.24) 0.92 (0.66,1.27) 0.9 (0.65,1.25)   0.92 (0.66,1.28)
Subscapular skinfold thickness (SSFT)
 Not overweight Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.  
 Overweight 1.49*(1.15,1.94) 1.49*(1.15,1.94) 1.5*(1.15,1.95) 1.5*(1.15,1.95)  
Physical activity
 Low Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Medium 0.90 (0.76,1.06) 0.90 (0.76,1.06) 0.90 (0.76,1.06) 0.90 (0.76,1.06) 0.90 (0.76,1.06)
 High 0.80 (0.85,1.14) 0.80 (0.85,1.14) 0.80 (0.85,1.14) 0.80 (0.84,1.14) 0.80 (0.85,1.14)
Serum triglycerides
 Low Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 High 0.90 (0.75,1.07) 0.90 (0.75,1.07) 0.90 (0.75,1.07) 0.90 (0.76,1.07) 0.90 (0.75,1.07)
Cholesterol
 Low Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 High 1.02 (0.69,1.52) 1.03 (0.69,1.53) 1.03 (0.69,1.52) 1.03 (0.69,1.53) 1.03 (0.69,1.53)
Low-density lipoprotein
 Low Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 High 1.33 (0.93,1.9) 1.32 (0.92,1.9) 1.33 (0.93,1.9) 1.33 (0.93,1.91) 1.33 (0.92,1.9)
High-density lipoprotein
 Low Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
 High 0.93 (0.8,1.07) 0.93 (0.8,1.07) 0.93 (0.8,1.07) 0.93 (0.8,1.07) 0.93 (0.8,1.07)
Body mass index (BMI)*Gender
 Adolescent boysa Not overweight/obese   Ref.    
 Adolescent boysa Overweight/obese   1.18 (0.78,1.79)    
 Adolescent girls a Not overweight/obese   0.72*(0.62,0.83)    
 Adolescent girls a Overweight/obese   0.74 (0.48,1.15)    
Abdominal obesity*Gender      
 Adolescent boys a No    Ref.   
 Adolescent boysa Yes    1.26 (0.74,2.17)   
 Adolescent girls a No    0.73*(0.63,0.84)   
 Adolescent girls a Yes    0.41 (0.16,1.07)   
Triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT)*Gender
 Adolescent boysa Not overweight     Ref.  
 Adolescent boysa Overweight     0.96 (0.63,1.45)  
 Adolescent girls a Not overweight     0.72*(0.62,0.83)  
 Adolescent girls a Overweight     0.48 (0.21,1.1)  
Subscapular skinfold thickness (SSFT)*Gender
 Adolescent boysa Not overweight      Ref.
 Adolescent boysa Overweight      2.23*(1.53,3.23)
 Adolescent girls a Not overweight      0.72*(0.62,0.84)
 Adolescent girls a Overweight      1.38 (0.9,2.11)
  1. a Interaction; OR: Odds Ratio; CI: Confidence Interval; Ref: Reference; *if p < 0.05
  2. Note: All the models have been run after controlling the other socio-demographic factors