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Table 2 Prevalence of pre-diabetes/diabetes among adolescents aged 10–19 years by socio-demographic characteristics in India, 2016–18

From: Prevalence of pre-diabetes/type 2 diabetes among adolescents (10–19 years) and its association with different measures of overweight/obesity in India: a gendered perspective

Variables Adolescent boys Adolescent girls Adolescent boys - Adolescent girls Proportion Test
(%) (%) (%) P < 0.05
Body Mass Index (BMI)
 Not overweight/obese 12.1 8.2 3.9  
 Overweight/obese 17.2 11.5 5.7 *
Abdominal obesity
 No 12.2 8.3 3.8 *
 Yes 20.8 9.1 11.7  
Triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT)
 Not overweight 12.0 8.3 3.7  
 Overweight 18.6 10.5 8.0  
Subscapular skinfold thickness (SSFT)
 Not overweight 11.6 8.1 3.5  
 Overweight 22.6 12.8 9.8 *
Physical activity
 Low 13.6 8.3 5.4 *
 Medium 12.2 9.2 3.0 *
 High 11.6 7.5 4.0 *
Serum triglycerides
 Low 12.2 9.2 3.0 *
 High 10.3 5.5 4.8 *
Cholesterol
 Low 12.0 8.5 3.5 *
 High 9.1 8.5 0.6 *
Low-density lipoprotein
 Low 11.9 8.3 3.6 *
 High 13.2 13.1 0.1 *
High-density lipoprotein
 Low 8.7 7.9 0.8 *
 High 12.3 8.7 3.7 *
Age (years)
 Early adolescence (10–14) 13.0 8.7 4.3 *
 Late adolescence (15–19) 11.7 7.8 3.9 *
Education
 No schooling 8.2 7.7 0.5  
 Dropout 12.3 9.4 2.9 *
 Currently studying 12.6 8.1 4.6 *
Media exposure
 No 11.8 7.1 4.7  
 Yes 12.6 8.6 4.0 *
Parent education
 Both uneducated 12.5 8.0 4.5 *
 Anyone educated 12.7 9.3 3.4 *
 Both educated 12.3 7.7 4.6 *
Parents diabetes status
 No one 12.5 8.4 4.2 *
 Anyone had 10.2 6.7 3.5  
Diet    0.0  
 Vegetarian 14.1 10.3 3.9 *
 Non-vegetarian 12.0 7.6 4.5 *
Junk food consumption
 No 12.9 10.7 2.2 *
 1–2 days 12.1 7.5 4.7 *
 3–7 days 14.1 5.7 8.5 *
Substance use
 No 11.9 8.2 3.7 *
 Yes 18.9 14.1 4.8 *
Caste
 SC/ST 11.8 9.5 2.4 *
 Non-SC/ST 12.7 7.7 5.0 *
Religion
 Hindu 12.3 8.5 3.8 *
 Muslim 11.8 6.3 5.5 *
 Christian 18.1 12.3 5.8 *
 Others 15.3 10.1 5.1  
Wealth quintile
 Poor 10.8 9.4 1.4 *
 Middle 14.0 7.6 6.4 *
 Rich 13.3 7.6 5.6 *
Place of residence
 Rural 12.4 8.4 4.0 *
 Urban 12.7 8.0 4.7 *
Regions
 North 16.3 10.6 5.8 *
 Central 11.1 6.9 4.2 *
 East 9.3 5.5 3.7 *
 Northeast 18.4 8.3 10.1 *
 West 13.7 12.9 0.9  
 South 14.5 10.2 4.3 *
Total 12.4 8.3 4.1 *
  1. *if p < 0.05; SC/ST Scheduled caste/ Scheduled tribe, % Percentage