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Table 2 Echocardiographic measurements in the left ventricle of (Cont, n = 8), control nicotinamide (Cont+NicA, n = 7), diabetic (Diab, n = 7), and diabetic nicotinamide (Diab+NicA, n = 8) groups

From: Nicotinamide attenuates streptozotocin-induced diabetes complications and increases survival rate in rats: role of autonomic nervous system

  Cont Cont + NicA Diab Diab + NicA P value
LVSD (cm) 0.54 ± 0.02 0.56 ± 0.01 0.46 ± 0.02 0.51 ± 0.01 p > 0.05
LVDD (cm) 0.87 ± 0.02 0.87 ± 0.01 0.77 ± 0.02* 0.83 ± 0.02 p < 0.05
IVSD (cm) 0.147 ± 0.03 0.152 ± 0.002 0.145 ± 0.006 0.125 ± 0.003 p > 0.05
PWD (cm) 0.150 ± 0.003 0.158 ± 0.003 0.148 ± 0.06 0.126 ± 0.003 p > 0.05
RWT (cm) 0.35 ± 0.02 0.36 ± 0.01 0.39 ± 0.02 0.31 ± 0.01 p > 0.05
EF (%) 76 ± 1 74 ± 1 79 ± 2 76 ± 2 p > 0.05
FS (%) 46.2 ± 7.7 44.6 ± 8.6 40.6 ± 1.6 45.9 ± 7.9 p > 0.05
IVRT (ms) 33.2 ± 0.8 29.4 ± 1.2 45.1 ± 1.8* 36 ± 1.6# p < 0.05
E’ (ms) 0.046 ± 0.003 0.045 ± 0.002 0.044 ± 0.001 0.042 ± 0.002 p > 0.05
A’ (ms) 0.037 ± 0.004 0.031 ± 0.001 0.048 ± 0.004 0.051 ± 0.004 p > 0.05
E/IVRT 0.021 ± 0.002 0.028 ± 0.002 0.013 ± 0.001* 0.018 ± 0.001# p < 0.05
  1. LVSD left ventricle diameter in systole; LVDD left ventricle diameter in diastole; IVSD interventricular septum in diastole; PWD posterior wall in diastole; RWT relative wall thickness; EF ejection fraction; FS fractional shortening; IVRT isovolumetric relaxation time; E’ early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocity; A’ late atrial diastolic mitral annular velocity; E/IVRT ratio between early diastolic transmitral flow velocity and isovolumetric relaxation time. *p < 0.05 vs. Cont; #p < 0.05 vs. Diab