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Table 1 Hemodynamics and cardiovascular autonomic modulation in control (Cont, n = 8), control nicotinamide (Cont+NicA, n = 7), diabetic (Diab, n = 7), and diabetic nicotinamide (Diab+NicA, n = 8) groups

From: Nicotinamide attenuates streptozotocin-induced diabetes complications and increases survival rate in rats: role of autonomic nervous system

  Cont Cont + NicA Diab Diab + NicA P value
Heart rate (bpm) 338 ± 6 343 ± 6 255 ± 6* 299 ± 10# p < 0.05
Mean blood pressure (mmHg) 110 ± 2 115 ± 2 94 ± 3*† 101 ± 2# p < 0.05
HRV (ms2) 105.1 ± 15.5 101.4 ± 17.6 129.6 ± 28.9 120.9 ± 17.7 p > 0.05
RMSSD (ms) 4.8 ± 0.3 6.7 ± 0.6 5.4 ± 0.2 9.3 ± 1.2*# p < 0.05
LF (ms2) 4.5 ± 0.7 4.2 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 0.8 5.2 ± 0.7 p > 0.05
HF (ms2) 13.0 ± 0.8 13.8 ± 2.2 7.0 ± 1.2*† 13.7 ± 1.6# p < 0.05
LF (n.u.) 22.8 ± 2.8 19.8 ± 3.3 25.6 ± 3.7 23.5 ± 2.4 p > 0.05
HF (n.u.) 77.1 ± 2.8 80.1 ± 3.3 71.2 ± 3.7 76.5 ± 2.4 p > 0.05
LF/HF 0.30 ± 0.04 0.30 ± 0.05 0.46 ± 0.04 0.36 ± 0.04 p > 0.05
SAPV (mmHg2) 43.9 ± 1.8 42.2 ± 4.8 21.8 ± 10.0 33.1 ± 3.8 p > 0.05
  1. HRV Heart rate variability; SAPV systolic arterial pressure variability computed from 0.20 to 3 Hz (total power), low-frequency (LF: 0.20–0.75 Hz) and high-frequency (HF: 0.75–3 Hz) bands; RMSSD root mean square of successive differences; n.u normalized units. *p < 0.05 vs. Cont; #p < 0.05 vs. Diab, p < 0.05 vs. Cont+NicA